Try our training for free.

Gain instant access to our entire IT training library for 1 week. Train anytime on your desktop, tablet, or mobile devices.

Cisco CCNA certification proves your professional worth. It tells prospective employers that you can handle the day-to-day work of running a mid- to large-sized Cisco network....
Cisco CCNA certification proves your professional worth. It tells prospective employers that you can handle the day-to-day work of running a mid- to large-sized Cisco network.

The two-exam CCNA process covers lots of innovative features, which better reflect the skills and knowledge you'll need on the job. Passing both exams is your first step towards higher-level Cisco certification, and trainer Jeremy Cioara has mapped these CCNA training videos to the 640-816 test. This CCNA training is not to be missed.

Here's how one user described Jeremy's training: "By the way, Jeremy Cioara has to be by far one of the BEST Cisco trainers I have ever had the privilege to learn from overall. He not only keeps your attention but his energy is contagious and he provides the information at a level where you grasp it rather easily."

The last day to take the 640-816 exam is Sept. 30, 2013. After that date, the only ICND2 exam available will be 200-101. CBT Nuggets has a training course for the 200-101 exam here.

All trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective holders.
1. Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 1 (33 min)
2. Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 2 (28 min)
3. Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 3 (23 min)
4. Switch VLANs: Understanding VLANs (16 min)
5. Switch VLANs: Understanding Trunks and VTP (39 min)
6. Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 1 (35 min)
7. Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 2 (39 min)
8. Switch STP: Understanding the Spanning-Tree Protocol (28 min)
9. Switch STP: Configuring Basic STP (21 min)
10. Switch STP: Enhancements to STP (29 min)
11. General Switching: Troubleshooting and Security Best Practices (29 min)
12. Subnetting: Understanding VLSM (18 min)
13. Routing Protocols: Distance Vector vs. Link State (26 min)
14. Routing Protocols: OSPF Concepts (30 min)
15. Routing Protocols: OSPF Configuration and Troubleshooting (39 min)
16. Routing Protocols: EIGRP Concepts and Configuration (32 min)
17. Access-Lists: The Rules of the ACL (27 min)
18. Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs (34 min)
19. Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs, Part 2 (48 min)
20. NAT: Understanding the Three Styles of NAT (20 min)
21. NAT: Command-line NAT Configuration (35 min)
22. WAN Connections: Concepts of VPN Technology (33 min)
23. WAN Connections: Implementing PPP Authentication (34 min)
24. WAN Connections: Understanding Frame Relay (28 min)
25. WAN Connections: Configuring Frame Relay (30 min)
26. IPv6: Understanding Basic Concepts and Addressing (34 min)
27. IPv6: Configuring, Routing, and Interoperating (23 min)
28. Certification: Some Last Words for Test Takers (13 min)
29. Advanced TCP/IP: Working with Binary (25 min)
30. Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 1 (55 min)
31. Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 2 (22 min)
32. Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 3 (19 min)

Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 1

Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 2

Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 3

Switch VLANs: Understanding VLANs

Switch VLANs: Understanding Trunks and VTP

Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 1

Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 2

Switch STP: Understanding the Spanning-Tree Protocol

Switch STP: Configuring Basic STP

Switch STP: Enhancements to STP

General Switching: Troubleshooting and Security Best Practices

Subnetting: Understanding VLSM

Routing Protocols: Distance Vector vs. Link State

Routing Protocols: OSPF Concepts

Routing Protocols: OSPF Configuration and Troubleshooting

Routing Protocols: EIGRP Concepts and Configuration

Access-Lists: The Rules of the ACL

Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs

Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs, Part 2

NAT: Understanding the Three Styles of NAT

NAT: Command-line NAT Configuration

WAN Connections: Concepts of VPN Technology

WAN Connections: Implementing PPP Authentication

WAN Connections: Understanding Frame Relay

WAN Connections: Configuring Frame Relay

IPv6: Understanding Basic Concepts and Addressing

IPv6: Configuring, Routing, and Interoperating

Certification: Some Last Words for Test Takers

Advanced TCP/IP: Working with Binary

Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 1

Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 2

00:00:00

Let the adventure continue as we move into TCP/IP subnetting, Part 2. What we're going to do is build on the foundation that we laid in Part 1, which was the three steps of subnetting based on the number of networks, as in we had the number of networks that we needed and figured out our subnets from there. Well this video

00:00:21

changes that scenario a little bit, flipping it on end and saying, we're going to subnet based on the number of hosts rather than the number of networks. Now this assumes that you did, you know you've gone through part one so I'm not gonna spend as much time reiterating the three steps, but I guarantee you that seeing this will not only help you with the scenarios we're presenting right here, with these four different scenarios, but you'll also get a better feel for even the scenarios from Part 1, because it is the same three steps and a very similar process. So let's

00:00:51

get going. I'd like to start things off by a network scenario that's very similar to the one that we started the previous video with, so that you can see the differences. We have an organization that's purchased a Class C address, again 216.21.5.0, and would like to use it to create networks of up to 30 hosts each. So if you think back before, we were trying to work through this scenario based on creating five networks, one, two, three, four, five. But this scenario says I would

00:01:25

like to create networks of 30 hosts each. So they're more focused on the number of hosts per network rather than the number of networks. When working through a subnetting problem of this slant, the steps are nearly identical as before. I should say the steps

00:01:40

are identical, there's just a slight tweak as to what we're looking at. So step one was to determine the number of hosts and convert that to binary. Just like we saw with the number of networks. Here's our Class C subnet that we purchased. We know that we're

00:01:53

trying to find networks of 30 hosts per network, so that's our host. Number of hosts: 30. With that in mind, let's break that down using the binary 128, 64, 32, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1. Now with these numbers in place, again we realize that we're only after the number of bits. So we don't need to figure out

00:02:16

the whole number, although I will just for this example. 16 plus 8, that's 24, plus 4, that's 28, plus two more, that's 30, and then we have a zero for the one. So the actual binary number for 30 is 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0. But again, being that we're only after the number of bits, we're really focused on, it takes five bits to get the number 30. Step two is then to reserve the bits in the mask and find your increment. Here's where the slight

00:02:48

tweak comes in. I'm going to take the original subnet mask, and we start off with a Class C example again, 255.255.255.0 and write that in all binary so one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight; one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight; one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight; and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight. I'll show you how to improve

00:03:12

your speed on that in just a moment, on the next scenario. So we're looking at this right now in terms of, this is our original subnet mask and we need to do subnetting. Now in the previous video we were focused on, I need to more network bits because I needed five networks or 30 networks or 100 networks or whatever the scenario said. I was more focused on getting

00:03:35

networks than I was on how many hosts were on each one of those networks. In this style, we're more focused on how many hosts we're getting - and yes, we're going to be doing subnetting, otherwise we wouldn't be here in the first place. We want to break it

00:03:50

into networks but we're not as concerned with how many networks we get as we are with how many hosts can exist on each network. So when you're thinking of this, I want you to just say in your mind whenever you see how many hosts per network, just kind of like Save the Whales - save the hosts. You can scream it out

00:04:09

loud, you know, whenever, wherever you want, because what we're focused on is saving the hosts. One, two, three, four, five, to be exact. Instead of working from left to right saying, I need five more network bits, I'm saying I can't get the number 30. I can't get 30 hosts without - or I should say with any less than five bits. We know that the host bits are

00:04:37

zero, so we're saving five of them. Save the host, you can say it out loud. Now once we've saved the five host bits, the rest of them can become network bits. It can move over to the network side, the dark side of the force, because we're still doing subnetting.

00:04:55

We still want to subnet but we're now focused on how many hosts we get rather than the specific number of the networks. So with that in mind, that is the only difference. So here we go, let's work through the subnet mask. Our new subnet mask is 255.255.255, and if we convert this one back to decimal, that will be.224. If we add up all those numbers. Or if we were using the bit notation,

00:05:23

that would be a /24 plus three more, /27. Our increment is the lowest network bit, which is a 32. That's our increment. Now we can find our network ranges. We started with 216.21.5.0 and then we just start adding 32. 216.21.5.32,.5.64, .96,.128,.160. You can just keep going you far as down as you'd like to go. Fill in the end ranges,

00:06:00

last IP address before 32 - 31. Before 64 - 63. Now I'm really shorthand writing this right now, just to save the time, but this is filling in the end range for each one of them. It goes from 216.21.5.0 through 216.21.5.31. Can't use the last one, can't use the first one, so we actually get one through 30 that are usable in between, which is exactly the number of hosts that we were looking for. Just how many subnets do

00:06:30

we get? Two to the power of - well we introduced three more subnet bits - two to the power of three will end up being this is two to the power of zero, one, two, three, so we end up with eight total if we were to work this down the whole way. And if we were to do

00:06:48

two to the power of five, because there's five host bits that we saved, minus two, that leaves us with 30 hosts per subnet. Now you might notice that I'm moving through these a little bit faster, because we've seen the foundation of the previous video where I work through them step by step, working very slow, explaining everything as I go along. What I'd like to do here is not only

00:07:11

of course, introduce the new concept, but to get you faster at this as well, to move a little bit quicker through these scenario. So if it seems like I'm going faster, I am. We have another scenario, same style. We've got network scenario number two, Class C example. We have the network

00:07:30

195.5.20, and the organization is looking for 50 hosts per network. So let's start it off again. Determine the number of hosts and convert to binary. I'll write up our binary chart over here eight, four, two, and one. We have 50 hosts. So I look right here, no, no, yes. Our first one goes at 32, so I immediately know it takes six bits to get the number 50. Sorry, let me just change my font that I'm writing with so it's a little thicker so it looks a little neater. We've got 50 hosts equals six bits. Now what we need to do is reserve the bits in the subnet mask and find out increment. So our original subnet mask is

00:08:18

255.255.255.0. I mentioned that I was going to show you a way to shorten this down, as well. Once you're comfortable doing this, you can look at this and say, well I can't really change the 255s, right, because since this was a Class C address to start off with, I can't change the original subnet mask.

00:08:35

Meaning, I can't move it backwards, otherwise it wouldn't be a Class C address. So the way I do this is I just think okay, so that would be 24 ones, dot dot dot, dot one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight zeros, because the zeros are really your playground. That's where you can work. You can't change the

00:08:55

original 24, so you can just kind of jot those up there like that, just quick shorthand instead of counting them all out. Now you have to ask the question, are we creating more networks or saving the hosts? And you have to put your hand in the air when you do that, it's required. We look and it's after the

00:09:11

number of hosts. It's 50 hosts per network, so we are saving the hosts: one, two, three, four, five, six of them have been saved because we can't get the number 50 with any less than six bits. The other two host bits can change over to ones so that we can do our subnetting process. Once we do that,

00:09:33

we know that our subnet mask will be 255.255.255. And we have two bits, if we add those together that would be.192 is our decimal subnet mask or a /26, which is the 24 original ones of the Class C, plus two more that we just added when we did our subnetting;/26 mask. Our increment - 64. Box, box, box, box, that is our number that we can use to find our ranges.

00:10:03

So we say, 195.5.20.0, just start adding 64 to the fourth octet, because that's where we're at. 195.5.20-.64 .128,.192, and if we add 64 to 192, we'll actually get 256. Now immediately when you say that, and by this is the same all way down, I'm just shorthanding it here. When you see 256, you should immediately go okay, bing, I must have reached the end of something right there. So I just start filling in the end range, we get 63 127, 191, and this goes up to 255. There is no 256 because I'm done. Meaning I've reached my four network ranges that this will give me. I'm done - you might remember from the previous video

00:11:00

where we actually started carrying over to the next octet. Well you can't do that here because you started with a Class C address. Meaning, you can't change the original network that you were given. You've just subnetted into four networks. And if you look at that, two the power

00:11:13

of x being the subnet bits, so it'd just be two to the power of two; that's two times two is four. So that tells you you only get four network ranges with - it would be two to the power of six minus two, you actually end up with 62 hosts per subnet. Pretty cool, huh? Now a lot of this stuff that I'm doing, if like, adding 64 plus 64 plus 64 just comes from doing this a hundred thousand times. You'll - as you

00:11:43

do this again and again and again, you'll practice. You'll get used to seeing what typical subnet values are, to where you can just see the two bits and go oh, that's 192. As a matter of fact, the longer you do this - I'm to the point in my subnetting where I've practiced this enough, and obviously teaching helps, so I'll tell you what - find a family relative and teach them how to subnet. They'll love

00:12:06

you for it, and you'll learn it even better. But teaching this, I can just look at bits and say oh, that's 192. It's kind of like, have you ever see The Matrix, where the guy's looking at the matrix in an encoded format and he said, I don't even see the code anymore. I see

00:12:22

you know, a guy, a girl walking, a blonde, a brunette, you know. It's just he's stared at the code for so long, it kind of fried his brain. You will get to the point where your brain is fried, and you will master subnetting. Now you might be noticing as we're working through these, I am emphasizing speed. Let me take just a moment and tell you why.

00:12:42

Speed in the real world is not as critical. It's not like you'll be walking into a job where they're like, subnet this now, you've got 30 seconds, and that's what you've got to do. I just know that a lot of you are preparing for the CISCO certification exams. If you're getting ready for those, speed is of the essence.

00:13:00

CCENT, CCNA, and even CCNP, just about anything you do in the CISCO world will have subnetting involved in it and you'll have to do it and have to do it fast. So just to give you an idea of where we've come from, I'm always watching the clock when I'm recording to make sure that we don't get too long or too short of things like that. When we first did the subnetting examples

00:13:25

when we were in the previous video, we were at about 11 to 14 minutes per problem as I was working through and explaining what I'm doing as I go. The two problems that we've done so far, the two scenarios, we've spent - the first one was five minutes, and the last one was four and-a-half minutes working through those. So my recommendation

00:13:47

is when you're working through these, obviously you're not going to have a voice in your head - well maybe you will - but explaining it as you go, and you'll be able to write much faster. But I would gauge your time and try to aim somewhere between two to three minutes per problem, when you get to one of these. That's when you know you've got

00:14:04

it fast enough to prepare for the actual certification exam. All right, Network Scenario number three. We've got now a Class B network. I've changed it up a little bit, and someone was reading CISCO Best Practice Documentation and now it says I need 500 hosts per subnet. That's what CISCO says should be the maximum. So now we go with our 500, write out our binary chart - 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 - but I know I must go further in order to get the number 500 because that's above eight bits. So I go 256 is my next one, double that and you've got 512. And immediately I can stop there because I've passed my 500. Now that's not where my first one goes. My first one goes right here, because I can't subtract 512 from 500. So just by drawing my initial one, I can see that it's going to take nine bits to get the number from 500. Second step, reserve the bits in the mask and find your network range. So original subnet mask, 255.255.255.0. We're going to write that in binary, which is 16 ones, dot one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight zeros.

00:15:25

You don't want to shortcut the zeros because that's really where you work. Eight. So we've got our 16 zeros. Now are we creating a 500 networks or saving the hosts. Saving the hosts. Not only is it more fun to say, but it's more fun to do. We have nine bits right to left, one, two, three, four, five,

00:15:46

six, seven, eight, dot nine. We've crossed that octet boundary. The rest of them can become one. One, two, three, four, five, six, seven. That was the rest of those bits that were in the third octet. So with that in mind, I can look and say my new subnet mask is 255.255.254.0, is that guy, or a /23. I just think of Class C address with all these being one is a /24, so we subtract one. Our increment, circle that guy, that guy is two, in decimal.

00:16:24

So we look at what octet that increment is in. It's in the third octet, so I start down here with 150.5.0.0 and I'll increment in that third octet: 150.5.2.0; .5.4.0,.6.0, .8.0, and so on and so on we go. The end range goes through 150.5.1.255. This goes through 150.5.3.255. This goes through 5.255, and so on, whoop; 255. And so on and so forth we go down the way.

00:17:08

If you were watching the clock on that previous network scenario number three, it was two minutes, 54 seconds we took, once I got out of my, you know, once we started actually working on the problem. Pretty good. That's the kind of time frame you need to be looking out for these. All right, now work scenario

00:17:25

number four. Class A address, we have 10.0.0.0 and need 100 hosts per network. So 100, how many bits does it take to get that number? 128, 64, 32, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1. Our first one goes right there so immediately I know it is seven bits. Step two, our original subnet mask was 255.0.0.0, which is eight ones, dot one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, dot one, two, three, four five six seven eight dot one two three four five six seven, eight. Can't really shortcut Class A subnet masks. So we've got 24 zeros that we're working with. So with that in place, we know that

00:18:15

we are needing seven bits and that we're after the number of hosts. So save the hosts, right to left: one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, one. So that's our eight bits of our last octet. What happens to all the rest of these bits? They change over to one. So we did quite

00:18:35

a number of subnets when we went with this Class A address. So we ended up going to 255.255.255 dot, and then the last octet is 128. Our increment is - circle that - 128. Happens to be the same as our subnet mask. So now with our network ranges, we start

00:18:57

with 10.0.0.0. Now to find out where to increment, we need to look at where our increment is at. It's in the last octet over there. So I say, 10.0.0.128 the fourth octet is where I increment. 10.0.; oh, stop right there. If I add 128 to to 128, I'll get 256. I know that's not possible, so if I fill in the end ranges I'll have 128 to - or zero to 127, is the previous one. This goes up to - if the next one was 256, this would be 255. So again, do that - we did this in the previous video, just kind of add the one, carry it over to the next octet, we start with 1.0, 1.128, 2.0, 2.128, and so on and so forth we go down the way. Fill in the

00:19:50

end ranges. This goes through 10.1 - or 10.0.1.127 through 10.0.1.255. Sorry, I'm - I was trying to beat the clock. I'm sorry. But that that's how we're going to work this. Sorry for the extreme shorthand, but this is working through a Class A example and we would keep on going, keep incrementing through all of the Class B and C octets. So if you wanted to find

00:20:19

how many subnets you would have, it would be two to the power of - we converted one, eight, 16 - two to the power of 17. So that would be 17 bits total. I had to think about that one - will tell us how many networks you'll have. Thankfully if you're preparing for the exam, they will never have a question asking you that kind of math without a calculator. So I'll do two to

00:20:43

the power of 17 equals - yeah, 131,000 subnets are at our disposal when we subnet a class A address like that. Excellent. At this point, you should be getting a little better feel for how this subnetting works. As I did in the previous video, I have an on your own section. It's essentially homework to work through.

00:21:09

Four different examples of, this time, breaking into networks based on host requirements rather than network requirements. As I did for the previous video, working through these without having an answer to check yourself isn't very helpful, so I've typed up a little walkthrough for each one of these, essentially the three steps we've been working through so far, so that when you finish them, you can compare your answers to what I have.

00:21:31

That's available off of nuggetlab.com, and just look for the CCENT pack of some sort. It'll be a zip file where you can download all of this paperwork. We've got, after this, one more style of subnetting to show you. And in my mind, it's the easiest but

00:21:50

it's the most common style that's out there. Let's talk about, before we get into the new style, where we've been so far. At this point, you should know how to subnet based on the number of networks, if you were given x number of networks you can break apart addresses and break them into subnets that meet those requirements. And you should be able to do that

00:22:12

for hosts. When somebody says, I need this many hosts per network, then you can work through that, save the hosts, and meet those requirements and come up with a subnet mask and network ranges to deliver. I hope this has been informative for you and I'd like to thank you for viewing.

Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 3

Please help us improve by sharing your feedback on training courses and videos. For customer service questions, please contact our support team. The views expressed in comments reflect those of the author and not of CBT Nuggets. We reserve the right to remove comments that do not adhere to our community standards.

comments powered by Disqus
16 hrs 32 videos

COURSE RATING

Basic Plan Features


Speed Control
Included in this course
Play videos at a faster or slower pace.

Bookmarks
Included in this course
Pick up where you left off watching a video.

Notes
Included in this course
Jot down information to refer back to at a later time.

Closed Captions
Included in this course
Follow what the trainers are saying with ease.

NuggetLab
Files/materials that supplement the video training

Premium Plan Features


Practice Exams
These practice tests help you review your knowledge and prepare you for exams.

Virtual Lab
Use a virtual environment to reinforce what you are learning and get hands-on experience.

Offline Training
Included in this course
Our mobile apps offer the ability to download videos and train anytime, anywhere offline.

Accountability Coaching
Included in this course
Develop and maintain a study plan with assistance from coaches.
Jeremy Cioara
Nugget trainer since 2003