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LPIC1 & CompTIA Linux+ Intro

Hardware Settings

Boot the System

Change Runlevels and Reboot or Shutdown the System

Design Hard Disk Layout

Install a Boot Manager

Manage Shared Libraries

Debian Package Management

RPM & YUM Package Management

Work on the Command Line

Process Text Streams Using Filters

Perform Basic File Management

Use Streams, Pipes, and Redirects

Create, Monitor, and Kill Processes

Process Priorities

Search Text Files with Regular Expressions

Perform Basic File Editing Operations Using vi

Create Partitions and Filesystems

Maintain the Integrity of Filesystems

Control Mounting and Unmounting of Filesystems

Manage Disk Quotas

00:00:00 - Welcome to nugget 104.4, Managing Disk Quotas.
00:00:05 - This section has a weight of one. Now this nugget's pretty
00:00:08 - straightforward. We're gonna go through setting up quotas
00:00:11 - on a disk, we're gonna learn how to edit quotas for users and groups.
00:00:15 - We're gonna learn how to check quotas. We're gonna learn how
00:00:17 - to generate reports on users and groups, and then I also want
00:00:21 - to tell you what hard limits and soft limits are, when it comes
00:00:25 - to setting up quotas. Now before we can actually set up quotas
00:00:29 - on the computer, we need to set the computer up for quotas. So let's go
00:00:33 - over to our trusty virtual machine, and look at what we have to
00:00:38 - do. Okay, even though your kernel probably support quotas,
00:00:43 - what you may not have installed are the tools to work with
00:00:46 - quotas on your system, for example, in Ubuntu, I'm going to type sudo
00:00:51 - apt-get install quota,
00:00:54 - and you'll see it's actually already installed on my computer, but
00:00:57 - it wasn't by default when I installed the system. So that will
00:01:00 - give us the tools that we need. Now the next thing we need to
00:01:03 - do, is edit
00:01:05 - the, and sudo vi, fstab,
00:01:09 - we need edit this fstab file, we learned about in the
00:01:13 - last nugget, and we need to change some things. Now it's important
00:01:17 - to know quotas only work on an entire device. So you
00:01:21 - can't just pick a folder and use quotas on a specific folder,
00:01:25 - most commonly it's, it would be used on like a home directory, if
00:01:29 - that's mounted on like an NFS partition or on a separate
00:01:32 - hard drive on your system. Here we're going to use the same
00:01:35 - partition that we've been messing with the whole time. So let
00:01:38 - me get rid of what we have here,
00:01:41 - and we're going to just say defaults, remember we learned that that
00:01:45 - will automatically mount it and give us some rational and sane
00:01:48 - defaults, but then we need to add a couple things, we need to
00:01:52 - add usrquota,
00:01:55 - as an option, and grpquota. Now we don't have to add
00:02:00 - both, we can just add one if we're just going to be using user
00:02:02 - quotas or group quotas, but we do that, and then we save the
00:02:06 - file, and now we're able to add quotas to the system, but since
00:02:13 - we just made the changes to the fstab file, we actually
00:02:16 - need to unmount and remount the partition. So let's do that really
00:02:20 - quickly, umount /mnt/hard_drive/, sudo
00:02:26 - mount/ mnt/ hard_drive, okay so now they're activated. We could also have
00:02:30 - just used the mount -o remount command, you know, so use
00:02:34 - the remount option with the, the mount command, but this works just as well too.
00:02:38 - So now we have quotas enabled, we have quotas activated, and now
00:02:44 - we need to make the quota files themselves. Now, the first thing
00:02:48 - we need, we should do, now, we don't actually need to do this, because
00:02:50 - we know that quotas are not turned on, I mean we've started from scratch,
00:02:54 - but it's always a safe bet to type sudo
00:02:58 - quotaoff. Now this will give us an error, mnt/hard_drive/,
00:03:05 - because it's going to say, whoa, there's no quotas to turn off.
00:03:08 - We, we actually knew that, but it's always a safe, a safe bet to
00:03:11 - actually turn off quotas, just to make sure that they're off, and,
00:03:15 - you know, something in the system hasn't been activated before
00:03:17 - you started working on it, okay, so it's just a good safety step to
00:03:21 - do the quotaoff command. All right, so now quotas are off, and we need to actually
00:03:25 - create quota files on the hard drive, or the partition, that
00:03:29 - we've put, that we've activated quotas on, because right now, there's
00:03:33 - no quota files, and, I'll, we'll, we'll make those, and I'll explain them here in a minute.
00:03:36 - So, sudo, the
00:03:38 - command to actually create quota files is quotacheck, and
00:03:44 - the flags we need are -c, for create, and we're going
00:03:47 - to create both the user and the group quota files, because we
00:03:52 - activated both on these partitions. Then we need to tell it where, mnt/hard_drive/,
00:03:57 - so quotacheck will, will create these files. Now, quotacheck usually
00:04:01 - runs on boot up, and it's always a good, good idea to run this,
00:04:05 - even manually if your system has been shut down, like with
00:04:08 - a power outage, or, or some sort of failure. It's good to have
00:04:12 - quotacheck run, just to make sure that it's, it's quota files
00:04:16 - and it, aren't corrupt and it knows exactly what's on the hard drive and what's
00:04:19 - going on, but what we've done with the -c flag is created
00:04:22 - those files initially, and we can look at them. Ls/
00:04:27 - mnt/hard-drive/, and you'll see these two files,
00:04:31 - and aquota.user. Now, these aren't text files, we can't just
00:04:34 - edit these, because they're binary in nature. So they're
00:04:37 - not something that we can automatically edit, but there is a
00:04:41 - tool, thankfully, that we can use to edit those for a specific
00:04:45 - user. Now, let's say we want to edit it for me, so let's say
00:04:51 - sudo edquota,
00:04:54 - for edit quota, -u for user spowers, because that's my
00:04:59 - username. So we'll do that, and it opens up in whatever our default text
00:05:04 - editor is, this is actually nano, which is fine, it's pretty
00:05:07 - simple to use text program, or text editor, and what this has done,
00:05:11 - it's taken a chunk of that binary file, converted it to text, so
00:05:15 - that we can edit it, or just view it, if we want, but it's talking
00:05:18 - about this file system, yep, that's the one we en, enabled quotas
00:05:22 - on, and it tells us a couple things. It says that the user
00:05:25 - spowers, is currently using four blocks for one kilobyte
00:05:29 - blocks of data, there's no soft limit set, and no hard nodes set,
00:05:35 - and then, it also says that I'm using four inodes, and there's
00:05:39 - no soft limit or hard limit set. Now that probably looks a little confusing,
00:05:44 - so I'll break these down. Now usage can be, you can set quotas
00:05:48 - for usage, either in the file size, so like, how much, how much
00:05:53 - data in kilobytes a user is allowed to use, and you can also limit
00:05:58 - the amount or the number of files that a user can use. Remember
00:06:02 - we learned that for every file on the system, there's one inode, well you
00:06:05 - can limit how many inodes a user or a group is allowed to
00:06:09 - use. So in my case, I have four blocks of data and four inodes
00:06:14 - in use, on this partition. Well, you just edit this, let's say,
00:06:18 - we want the soft limit to be 10,
00:06:24 - and we want the hard limit to be
00:06:28 - 100, all right.
00:06:34 - There, keep those lined up, so I want it to be 100 for that, and,
00:06:39 - no inodes, we're going to leave the zero, if the number is zero,
00:06:43 - it means that there, there's no quota, so there's no limit to
00:06:46 - the number of files I can have, but there is a limit to how much
00:06:51 - data I can have, like how many kilobytes, okay, and the difference
00:06:55 - between soft and hard, here's the deal, a person is allowed to
00:06:59 - go over the soft limit, but once they do, they go into a grace
00:07:03 - period, okay, now the grace period, is by default, one week. So
00:07:09 - if I have, let's say, 11 kilobytes of data, my grace period
00:07:14 - of seven days starts, and I have seven days to get that, that limit, or
00:07:18 - that data, below 10 kilobytes, and if it gets below 10 kilobytes,
00:07:22 - I, you know, my, I'm fine and it gets reset, my grace period's
00:07:26 - reset, and I don't have to worry about it, and then if I go over 10
00:07:29 - kilobytes again, my grace period starts fresh, and the system
00:07:32 - will email me saying, hey, whoa, you know, you, you went over your, your soft
00:07:37 - quota limit, and then the hard limit is different, the hard limit
00:07:40 - basically says, no matter what, you cannot save more than a
00:07:44 - 100 kilobytes of data on this partition, it just won't let it happen, it
00:07:49 - just will say, you know, access denied, but the soft limit, now remember I said
00:07:53 - there's a grace period, well, what happens if I store 15 kilobytes
00:07:56 - of data on here,
00:07:58 - and then day eight rolls around. Well, in that case, all of a sudden,
00:08:03 - bam, my soft limit and my grace period has ended, so I can no longer
00:08:08 - write data, even though my hard limit's a 100, I've been in
00:08:11 - my grace period with 15 kilobytes for eight days, so boom,
00:08:15 - I'm done, I can't save any more data to the partition, and that's
00:08:18 - how soft quotas and hard quotas work. Now you may do something
00:08:23 - like this, you may, oop, let me go back over,
00:08:27 - you may have a soft limit of 10,
00:08:31 - and no hard limit at all. So what would happen there? Well, you could,
00:08:36 - let's say, for seven days, I could store a 100 gigabytes, right,
00:08:40 - because there's no hard limit, there's no hard cap on how much
00:08:43 - data I can have, as long as I am within my seven day grace period,
00:08:48 - I can go over my soft limit to any degree. So it doesn't, you know, see what
00:08:53 - I'm saying, so if this is a zero, it, you know, it's never gonna stop
00:08:56 - me as long as I with my grace period, and the grace period is
00:08:59 - something that you can change too, but the default is seven days,
00:09:02 - and that's just how it goes. Now the same exact thing with inodes,
00:09:06 - soft limit, hard limit, you can, you can also have no soft limit, right?
00:09:11 - You could have a
00:09:14 - zero soft limit,
00:09:17 - and a 10 hard limit,
00:09:21 - and that means it's, it's not going to warn me, it's going to
00:09:24 - be perfectly fine until I hit that 10 kilobyte, 10 kilobyte
00:09:28 - block limit, and then, bam, I'm not gonna be able to save anything,
00:09:31 - and then it will say, hey, you can't save anything, your limit is
00:09:35 - full, right. So that's how, how these different options play
00:09:40 - out. Hopefully that makes sense to you, and again, this is what's
00:09:43 - currently in use, because this file that we're editing now,
00:09:47 - in here, we'll, ah, we'll just leave it at this, a hard limit at 10, it doesn't
00:09:51 - really matter, because this is just an example, but you save
00:09:54 - this file, yes, save the file, and now my user will have that
00:10:01 - quota on that mnt/hard_drive partition, okay, so any file that
00:10:07 - I save there, I'm only gonna be allowed to save up to 10 kilobytes, and
00:10:12 - then I'll get that soft warning limit,
00:10:14 - all right, but only if we do sudo
00:10:19 - quotaon/ mnt/hard_drive/, okay, because remember we started with turning
00:10:25 - the quota off, and now quotaon is going to constantly update
00:10:29 - these files, as long as quotaon is running, these files will
00:10:35 - constantly be updated, anytime files are modified on this
00:10:38 - partition, okay, so that, that's how that number in the,
00:10:44 - if we go back here, that's how this number is kept updated, okay.
00:10:49 - So let's see, and now, we'll show an example of that, let's see, let's get out of here,
00:10:56 - I'm gonna touch /mnt/hard_drive/file4.txt, and
00:11:08 - then edit my quota again,
00:11:11 - now I see it, now I'm using five inodes, okay, again, it's just an empty
00:11:16 - file, it's not using any more data, but I'm using five inodes
00:11:19 - instead of four, because I own that file I just created, all right.
00:11:25 - Let's see if we were to, if I, as the user, let's say I edit
00:11:33 - file4, and I say,
00:11:35 - this is really cool, dude,
00:11:38 - I think vi is so awesome, and I'm gonna
00:11:44 - save this file, write error?
00:11:48 - It's bigger than my, than my 10 user block data, see? So this
00:11:52 - is a good, I actually didn't think that would be enough to do
00:11:54 - it, but sure enough, it went past my hard limit, so I'm not
00:11:58 - even able to save it, okay. There's a file system that's full,
00:12:02 - because I'm past my, my day, let's see if we can get it down enough
00:12:09 - to, hello.
00:12:21 - Yes, oh, even that is too much, I've reached my limit. Okay, let's get
00:12:26 - outta here.
00:12:32 - Let's make my limit a little bit bigger.
00:12:41 - Now, hopefully, I'll be able to save it. Yes, I was able to save it,
00:12:49 - but now, if you look, see I'm using eight blocks of data, and my hard limit is
00:12:53 - a 100K, so we don't have to worry about that, I'm using that
00:12:56 - many inodes. Now, the, what, okay, now here's something interesting
00:12:59 - about vi. Why is it I wasn't able to save, but I'm only using
00:13:03 - eight blocks of data, when my hard limit was 10? Well, it's because vi
00:13:06 - keeps an actual temporary copy of what you're working on, and
00:13:11 - it saves it in the same directory that's, that it was editing, so
00:13:13 - while I was editing and saving, it would've used 16 blocks, which
00:13:17 - was more than the 10 listed over here, all right, so quotas are
00:13:21 - actually really cool,
00:13:23 - but that's how you edit things for users. Now there's one more
00:13:26 - thing that's really cool that you can do, and that is get a list
00:13:30 - of, the, like a report of the current quotas for
00:13:34 - a system. So let's do sudo r-e-p quota, for a report; oop not quote, quota
00:13:42 - for mnt/hard_drive/. So if we do this, we'll get a report of
00:13:48 - all the users that own files on there, how much they're using,
00:13:51 - for example, these are the block limits, you know, the amount
00:13:53 - of data, I'm using eight blocks of data, my hard limit is 100
00:13:57 - blocks of data, file limits, again, these are inodes, I'm
00:14:01 - using seven, I don't have any hard limit, or anything like that,
00:14:05 - right, this is the grace period. Now, if I was above my soft limit,
00:14:10 - but I hadn't hit the hard limit, it would tell me how much
00:14:13 - time was left in my grace period before I was blocked out, and we would
00:14:16 - see errors when trying to save data, all right, so that is how quotas
00:14:20 - work. Now if we wanted to edit quotas for groups, we would
00:14:26 - do the exact same thing, sudo edquota,
00:14:30 - but we would say -g and, let's say, for the students
00:14:34 - group, all right, I have a students group on here, and the same thing would happen,
00:14:38 - okay, is it would show all of the syst, the file systems on the
00:14:43 - computer that have
00:14:46 - quotas enabled, and the group, see these are just like it
00:14:49 - was before, there are no files on that system that are, that
00:14:53 - are currently owned by anybody in the students group, but you
00:14:57 - would do the same thing, as you would do with the user, but
00:15:00 - it's for the entire group. Okay, and that's all there is to
00:15:05 - editing and configuring and doing reports on quotas. Let's make
00:15:09 - sure we have everything covered, and we'll move on to the next nugget.
00:15:12 - So we've learned how to set up quotas on the disk. We learned how
00:15:16 - to do that, with, by editing the fstab file. We learned
00:15:20 - how to edit the settings for the individual users or groups.
00:15:24 - We learned how to check quotas, again, with that, by using the edquota,
00:15:29 - and you can edit the quota and see what the quota's currently
00:15:32 - are, per user or per group. We learned how to do that cool report,
00:15:37 - which will show, for all the users, I only had a couple users
00:15:40 - on here, but it will generate reports using that r-e-p quota
00:15:43 - tool to show how many files and inodes are in use by
00:15:48 - everybody and their limits, and if they're in their grace period,
00:15:50 - and all that kind of stuff, and I explained the difference between
00:15:54 - hard limits and soft limits, so that you understand the difference
00:15:57 - there. Now again, this only has a weight of one, so it's not like
00:16:00 - there's gonna be a ton of questions on this, but managing
00:16:03 - quotas is really a cool and powerful thing that you can do,
00:16:06 - especially if you're low on resources and high on users. I
00:16:11 - hope this has been informative for you, and I'd like to thank you
00:16:14 - for viewing.

Manage File Permissions and Ownership

Create and Change Hard and Symbolic Links

Find System Files and Place Files in the Correct Location

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Shawn Powers

Shawn Powers

CBT Nuggets Trainer

LPIC-1; CompTIA Linux+, A+; Cisco CCNA

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This advanced buffering is applied to all streams regardless if you installed the doublespeed control or not. Sometimes the advanced buffering causes the video to hang or behave erratically. If you are experienceing issues with video playback please disable the doublespeed buffer.

Remember to re-enable the buffer if you want to use the doublespeed control.

If you are experiencing problems with our content delivery, please click here to switch to our alternate content delivery network or go to our network FAQ.
For other common video playback issues, including firewall and corporate network issues, please visit our Tech Support forum.