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LPI Linux LPIC-1 101 and CompTIA Linux+

Control Mounting and Unmounting of Filesystems

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LPIC1 & CompTIA Linux+ Intro

Hardware Settings

Boot the System

Change Runlevels and Reboot or Shutdown the System

Design Hard Disk Layout

Install a Boot Manager

Manage Shared Libraries

Debian Package Management

RPM & YUM Package Management

Work on the Command Line

Process Text Streams Using Filters

Perform Basic File Management

Use Streams, Pipes, and Redirects

Create, Monitor, and Kill Processes

Process Priorities

Search Text Files with Regular Expressions

Perform Basic File Editing Operations Using vi

Create Partitions and Filesystems

Maintain the Integrity of Filesystems

Control Mounting and Unmounting of Filesystems

00:00:00 - Welcome to nugget 104.3, where we learn about mounting
00:00:04 - and unmounting file systems. Now, we need to learn a few different
00:00:07 - things. We need to learn how to manually mount and unmount
00:00:10 - file systems. We need to learn how to do that automatically
00:00:14 - on bootup, using the /etc/fstab file. Then we need to learn
00:00:19 - how to do user mountable file systems. So a regular user can
00:00:22 - mount and unmount things. And then, this is actually not one of
00:00:26 - the exam requirements. But I just want to briefly explain what
00:00:29 - automount is, and why it might throw you for a loop if you're trying to
00:00:32 - do some of these things up here. Alright, so let's get to the
00:00:35 - command line, so I can show you how to mount and unmount.
00:00:39 - Okay, first things first. I'm going to show you how to use two commands,
00:00:43 - mount and umount, alright. Now if you remember from the past
00:00:46 - nuggets that we've done on working with hard drives. We have a
00:00:49 - formatted partition. It's right here. /dev/sdb1 okay.
00:00:55 - So we know that this is a partition, and if you don't know just
00:00:59 - trust me because this is a formatted partition, it has an ext3
00:01:03 - file system on it, which we learned how to make in previous
00:01:06 - nuggets. And now we're going to mount that. What you need to mount
00:01:10 - something, basically is an empty folder. So I've created inside,
00:01:16 - this folder mnt, I've created a folder called hard_drive, alright.
00:01:20 - Now it's owned by root, but it's readable and executable
00:01:25 - by everybody.
00:01:26 - So it's -- again, it's called hard_drive inside the mnt folder.
00:01:30 - So the way that you mount something, you type mount-t
00:01:35 - and the type of file system you're mounting, which in our
00:01:38 - case is ext3, not two,
00:01:42 - and then you say what device, for us it's /dev/sdb1,
00:01:47 - and then where you want it to mount it; /mnt/hard_drive/.
00:01:50 - So that's the command, you press enter,
00:01:55 - and you'll learn that you can only do that as root. Now there
00:01:58 - are some exceptions we're going to learn later, but in the
00:02:01 - meantime you need to know that in order to mount devices you
00:02:05 - need to be root. So again, we'll do S-U-D-O, for sudo.
00:02:10 - And now if you look in -- now, I guess I should have shown you that it was
00:02:13 - an empty directory, but I'll show you that in a second. Go to /mnt/hard_drive
00:02:18 - and see inside here,
00:02:22 - see, a bunch of stuff here. A lost and found folder, folder one, file one,
00:02:26 - file two, file three. So these are things inside this hard_drive folder now.
00:02:30 - So it acts just like a folder inside our drive, alright. If you want
00:02:35 - to see what devices are mounted, you can actually type the mount
00:02:39 - command with no flags at all. And it will show you the things that
00:02:42 - are mounted. Now, it shows you a whole bunch of things. Like the
00:02:45 - the proc file system, which we learnt early on, really isn't --
00:02:47 - it's like a virtual file system talking about the
00:02:51 - different states of the system. But, if you look down here, this
00:02:54 - is the last one, this is what we just did, we mounted /dev/sdb1
00:02:58 - on the /mnt/hard_drive folder, okay. So that's right in
00:03:03 - there. Now what if we want to unmount it. Now watch really, really
00:03:06 - close. First we're going to be root, so sudo. It's not --
00:03:10 - the command is not unmount its umount.
00:03:13 - And then you say either the folder that it's in,
00:03:19 - or the device.
00:03:25 - Either one of those.
00:03:27 - Oh, and -- hah, I'm glad I made this mistake. It says it's already in
00:03:31 - use, it's busy. Well, why is it busy? Well, because we're in that folder
00:03:35 - right now. So let's type cd, to get back to our home directory.
00:03:40 - Type that same command, and it's no longer busy, meaning, we're
00:03:43 - no longer in there. And now if we -- ls /mnt/hard_drive/.
00:03:49 - Remember, this is just a folder. We've unmounted it, so now
00:03:53 - it's just an empty folder, alright.
00:03:55 - So again, the folder has to be empty if you're to mount a
00:03:57 - hard drive or mount a block device on there. But right now it's just
00:04:01 - an empty folder. But if we were to mount it again,
00:04:05 - back to here, mount the device again,
00:04:10 - and we'll see, ls shows files in there, because it's mounted, alright.
00:04:15 - And again, sudo umount, will unmount it.
00:04:18 - So that's how you use mount and unmount.
00:04:24 - There are some things that you can do so that things mount automatically,
00:04:27 - because it's not like we have to do this every time the hard
00:04:30 - drive mounts. We don't have to mount, like for example, if you look
00:04:33 - in the mount, you know we don't have to mount the root partition
00:04:39 - every single time the computer boots up, it does it automatically.
00:04:42 - And what we're going to learn next is how to automatically mount
00:04:45 - things on boot.
00:04:47 - To do that, we're going to edit the file, sudo as root,
00:04:52 - vi, in the /etc/ folder, or /etc/ folder, as it's
00:04:56 - sometimes called, /fstab
00:05:01 - And this is what we're going to see. Now, just like with a lot
00:05:03 - of other configuration files, if it starts with this hash mark,
00:05:06 - or this number sign, it's a comment. So things here aren't parsed
00:05:10 - by the mounting programmer, by the kernel as it mounts different
00:05:13 - file systems. But what does happen, on a line with actual commands,
00:05:18 - there's basically six different fields that are read through. The first
00:05:23 - field is what file system we want to mount, and this can be referenced
00:05:27 - in three different ways. Now, here you'll see it's being referenced
00:05:31 - as a Universal Unique Identifier. And it's talking
00:05:35 - about the root partition of the drive. Now again, this is really
00:05:39 - /dev/sda1. However, every device has this Universal
00:05:45 - Unique Identifier and it's being referenced that way. So if
00:05:48 - you put in a new hard drive in its spot, it's not going to
00:05:51 - mount it on the root partition, because it's going to have a
00:05:53 - different UUID. So the second way you can do that is
00:05:57 - with a label. Now, you can label a partition, and then you can just
00:06:01 - reference this first one as label= and, let's say you named
00:06:05 - it bob, whatever you name the partition, you can label it
00:06:09 - something, and then reference the file system as whatever you
00:06:14 - name it if this said label. And the third way, which is what we're
00:06:17 - actually going to do, is like we see down here, the actual block
00:06:21 - device, /dev/scd1, or in our case, /dev/sdb1.
00:06:29 - The second field is where we want it to be mounted.
00:06:33 - The third field is what type of file system that is.
00:06:37 - The fourth one is options, now if there's more than one option, it's separated
00:06:41 - by commas, as you can see here. These different options are separated
00:06:44 - by commas. Now the last two are a little more confusing, dump
00:06:49 - is a booming thing, it's either a zero or a one. If it's a one it will save
00:06:54 - files automatically when the system is shut down. If it's a
00:06:58 - zero it won't. And then pass is talking about the order in
00:07:03 - which file systems are scanned, okay. So for example, usually
00:07:08 - the root file system, right here, will have a scan number
00:07:12 - of one. Other file systems that are local on the computer, like
00:07:17 - if you have, we learned about having like a separate user partition
00:07:21 - sometimes. That would have a number of two, and then removable
00:07:26 - devices, like CD roms and floppies, they generally all have a
00:07:30 - zero in for the pass number, okay. So that's just what
00:07:35 - that field means. So again, it's just important to remember,
00:07:38 - the root partition generally has a one, other local file systems
00:07:42 - mounting points usually have a two, and then removable media,
00:07:46 - removal file systems, generally have a zero for the pass, which
00:07:51 - is for the order in which the're scanned, alright. So basically, anything
00:07:55 - in here is going to be auto mounted. Unless it's specifically
00:07:59 - flagged noauto. But we're going to talk about that in a minute. Let's add
00:08:03 - our trusty little directory that we have. We are
00:08:08 - going to add /dev/sdb1, which is the same partition
00:08:13 - we've been working on for many nuggets.
00:08:15 - And where did we mount that? We mounted it on mnt/hard_drive.
00:08:19 - Now here's something -- let me just
00:08:23 - segway for a second here. You'll notice that the floppy drive
00:08:26 - and CD drives are mounted inside this folder called media.
00:08:30 - Now this is specifically listed on the lpic exam, and media
00:08:34 - is the place that generally removable media is mounted, okay.
00:08:39 - So, now I'm using the old school mnt folder for mounting another
00:08:43 - hard drive, right. As far as a program is concerned, it doesn't
00:08:46 - matter where you mount it. It just has to be an empty folder.
00:08:49 - But the tradition, or what's generally used, I don't want to say standard, because
00:08:54 - it's not necessarily a standard that you have to mount it
00:08:57 - in this media folder, but it's generally now in modern distribution,
00:09:01 - where removable devices are mounted. As in a folder inside the media
00:09:05 - folder, okay. Now, we just used a folder inside the mnt folder,
00:09:09 - and this is an empty folder called hard drive, which we saw
00:09:12 - a little bit ago when we were mounting it manually, alright.
00:09:16 - So, the next field is going to be what file type it is. Now you
00:09:20 - can type auto, like this, and it will probably detect it. But
00:09:23 - we actually know what the file system is. So we'll type ext3.
00:09:27 - And this next field here is options. Now, you can do this. You
00:09:32 - can say defaults, and it will give you a good set of defaults.
00:09:36 - It will auto mount the file system. It will be read-write. Let's
00:09:40 - put a couple of specific ones in here though. Let's say we
00:09:43 - want it to be read-write, the other option will be read only, which
00:09:47 - means that nobody could write to it, not even root. Because the
00:09:50 - file system itself would be a read only. User, now user is
00:09:56 - a really neat flag, and this actually is one of the ways that,
00:10:00 - or one of the objectives, to learn to do this, but if you add the
00:10:04 - user option, that means that any user, not just root, will
00:10:08 - be able to mount and unmount. If you remember, when we first tried
00:10:10 - to mount a file system, it said you had to be root. Well if
00:10:13 - you actually use this user flag, you don't have to be root in
00:10:17 - order to mount it. Now, the next one that we're going to add is auto. Now, the difference
00:10:23 - here, you see the cd, or this floppy drive, is noauto. What
00:10:27 - this means, it's different than the auto that detects the file system.
00:10:31 - This means that we'll automatically mount on bootup, okay. It's
00:10:35 - going to automatically mount this file system listed on bootup.
00:10:39 - Now, if you don't put auto in here, it's not going to auto mount it, unless
00:10:43 - you write that, remember I said defaults will give you a good
00:10:47 - group of default listings, of default options. Well,
00:10:51 - one of those options is auto. But we're going to specifically type
00:10:55 - that in, auto, and then we'll say, noexec, because executable
00:11:01 - or no executable. This means that anybody -- or that nobody
00:11:05 - will be able to run a binary program running in this field. A lot
00:11:10 - of times people will do this if they mount a home directory, they'll
00:11:13 - mount it with a noexec flag. So that people can't compile and
00:11:18 - run binary programs in their home directory. That could be
00:11:21 - a security risk, okay. So this is a pretty simple
00:11:24 - list of options. If you want to see all the options available,
00:11:28 - it's kind outside of the scope of this nugget, but go ahead
00:11:31 - and look at the man page. So type man mount, the manual
00:11:35 - page for the mount command, and it will show you a list of all
00:11:37 - the other options. If in doubt, just put defaults. Because just
00:11:41 - the word defaults as the only option, is a good set of defaults
00:11:45 - for mounting a standard file system, okay. Now, the next field
00:11:49 - is going to be that dump. Now, we're going to say zero. So it doesn't
00:11:53 - automatically write and shut down. That's generally what you
00:11:56 - want there, and then for pass. Now again, what order they're scanned in
00:12:00 - system startup. Now, let's see if we can figure this out. If you remember,
00:12:04 - I said the root
00:12:06 - partition, the root file system, generally has a one.
00:12:11 - Removable devices, generally have a zero. And I said, any other
00:12:16 - hard drive or any other partition mounted, like a user partition,
00:12:20 - or in our case the mount hard drive partition, will generally
00:12:24 - have a two, alright. So we quickly save this file.
00:12:29 - Okay, so let's see. We have, let's type mount, and see what's mounted,
00:12:34 - see. So we have nothing mounted here right now, okay. So --
00:12:38 - well, we have lots of stuff mounted, but -- alright. The partition
00:12:41 - we've been playing with has not been mounted. Now since we added that user
00:12:46 - option, I should be able to mount this without being root first, okay.
00:12:49 - And now, the other cool thing. We don't have to specify
00:12:54 - the device and the partition and the file type.
00:12:57 - Because that's all in there. All we have to do is reference
00:13:00 - one of them. So, let's say -- we either have to reference a device or the
00:13:04 - folder to mount it on. So let's say /mnt/hard_drive, okay.
00:13:08 - I didn't tell it what device to mount there, I just did
00:13:12 - that, and let's see if it worked.
00:13:16 - Sure enough, it mounted our file system. And the reason is, when
00:13:20 - you type mount in a file, it parses that at fstab file
00:13:23 - that we edited, and it says oh, okay. I know what's supposed to go on
00:13:27 - that folder that you specified, it's supposed to be /dev/sdb1
00:13:31 - So the same thing with umount.
00:13:34 - Now again, since we have that user option, we can do this without being
00:13:38 - root. So we can do it just as a regular user. Now, let's
00:13:42 - address it this way, /dev/sdb1
00:13:46 - And now the same thing. I didn't call it the same thing. I
00:13:49 - referenced a folder here, and I referenced the device here. But
00:13:52 - since it's in the fstab file, it knew what I was talking
00:13:55 - about, and it unmounted, it. So now if we type ls that folder, you see,
00:13:59 - it's just an empty folder again. Because I unmounted it with the umount command, alright.
00:14:03 - Now, this will, if I reboot the system, it will be mounted
00:14:07 - automatically, because remember, that's the default, and that's
00:14:13 - all there is to mounting and unmounting. Now remember, you have
00:14:16 - to be root, unless you specify, specify that user option
00:14:21 - in the fstab file.
00:14:25 - We started out this nugget, learning how to manually mount and unmount
00:14:29 - file systems with mount and umount. Now notice it's not unmount, the command
00:14:34 - is umount, alright. So we learned how to do that, and then we
00:14:38 - learnt how to edit the etc, or the /etc/fstab file and
00:14:42 - learnt how to mount things automatically on boot up using that
00:14:46 - auto option, right. If you write that auto option, or if you just
00:14:49 - use defaults. You know, type in defaults as the
00:14:53 - option, then it will automatically mount on boot up. Then we
00:14:57 - also learned about the user option, or the user flag, inside the
00:15:00 - /etc/fstab file, and that will allow a regular old
00:15:04 - user to mount and unmount file systems, right. Because we learned
00:15:09 - early on, that if you don't specify user, and you just try
00:15:12 - to mount and unmount, or umount a file system. It's says, well, only
00:15:17 - root can do that. But if you add that U-S-E-R option in the
00:15:21 - /etc/fstab, anybody a non root user, or a root user will be
00:15:26 - able to edit that, or to mount and unmount that.
00:15:30 - Now the one other thing I wanted to talk about, is automounting. Now,
00:15:34 - for the lpic exam and for this specific nugget, basically
00:15:38 - it's talking about a system that doesn't have a desktop manager,
00:15:41 - like GNOME, KDE. Because, if you are running, like for example, Ubuntu,
00:15:46 - and you put a USB drive in, it's going to automatically mount
00:15:50 - that on your desktop. And that is way beyond the scope of
00:15:54 - what we're trying to teach here. We're trying to teach the basic
00:15:57 - mount and unmount thing, and how to edit fstab for
00:16:01 - this objective number, okay. However, on your system, if you
00:16:05 - notice that weird things are going on, it's probably because
00:16:07 - you're running a gooey (GUI) operating area, a gooey environment, and
00:16:11 - the automount built into GNOME, or KDE, or whatever your
00:16:15 - desktop manager is, is probably taking over, and doing some stuff
00:16:19 - behind the scenes, that's beyond what we're learning here, okay.
00:16:22 - So don't worry if this is a little bit confusing, just know
00:16:25 - how to do the mount, the umount, and how to configure an /fstab file,
00:16:29 - and that will get you through this nugget, okay. I hope
00:16:33 - that this has been informative for you and I'd like to thank you
00:16:35 - for viewing.

Manage Disk Quotas

Manage File Permissions and Ownership

Create and Change Hard and Symbolic Links

Find System Files and Place Files in the Correct Location

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Shawn Powers

Shawn Powers

CBT Nuggets Trainer

Certifications:
LPIC-1; CompTIA Linux+, A+; Cisco CCNA

Area Of Expertise:
Linux

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