Cisco CCNA ICND2 640-816

Advanced TCP/IP: Working with Binary

by Jeremy Cioara

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Video Title Duration

Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 1

Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 2

Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 3

Switch VLANs: Understanding VLANs

Switch VLANs: Understanding Trunks and VTP

Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 1

Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 2

Switch STP: Understanding the Spanning-Tree Protocol

Switch STP: Configuring Basic STP

Switch STP: Enhancements to STP

General Switching: Troubleshooting and Security Best Practices

Subnetting: Understanding VLSM

Routing Protocols: Distance Vector vs. Link State

Routing Protocols: OSPF Concepts

Routing Protocols: OSPF Configuration and Troubleshooting

Routing Protocols: EIGRP Concepts and Configuration

Access-Lists: The Rules of the ACL

Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs

Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs, Part 2

NAT: Understanding the Three Styles of NAT

NAT: Command-line NAT Configuration

WAN Connections: Concepts of VPN Technology

WAN Connections: Implementing PPP Authentication

WAN Connections: Understanding Frame Relay

WAN Connections: Configuring Frame Relay

IPv6: Understanding Basic Concepts and Addressing

IPv6: Configuring, Routing, and Interoperating

Certification: Some Last Words for Test Takers

Advanced TCP/IP: Working with Binary

00:00:00 - If you have gone through all the videos in the series up to
00:00:04 - this point, I now deem you ready to move into the advanced
00:00:08 - TCP/IP section, which as a broader overview really
00:00:13 - focuses on one concept and that is TCP/IP subnetting. Now if
00:00:18 - you've been in the technology field for a while, you've probably
00:00:21 - heard of subnetting before. It's just one of those concepts
00:00:24 - that you can't get away from it seems like and a lot of people
00:00:27 - have many different ways to explain it, in some ways they're
00:00:30 - very confusing, some ways they're not so confusing. Someways get
00:00:33 - really heavy into math, some ways do not; so what we're going to
00:00:37 - do is take a few videos to explain what TCP/IP subnetting
00:00:42 - is all about. Now the beauty of having this on CBT Nuggets, is
00:00:46 - if you ever need more review you can always come back and watch
00:00:49 - the videos again and again and again and there's plenty of
00:00:52 - practice that we're going to do as well. So the first piece of understanding
00:00:57 - subnetting is working with binary. So before we just jump straight
00:01:01 - into binary, I want to do a little bit of a review of the basics of the IP protocol,
00:01:05 - talk about where it comes from, what it does that sort of thing;
00:01:08 - just a quick high level review and also I'd like to give you a
00:01:11 - preview of what's to come around the corner with the next version.
00:01:16 - Finally we're going to take some time and look at converting
00:01:19 - numbers from decimal to binary and back, one of the essential
00:01:22 - skills you must have for subnetting.
00:01:25 - Well let's start off by doing a little bit of a review on the
00:01:28 - IP basics. As of right now we're using TCP/IP version four
00:01:32 - addresses. Now there's your trivia question, is to figure
00:01:36 - out what TCP/IP version one two and three really were. I'll save
00:01:40 - you some time, there was no version one two and three, they just
00:01:43 - started and really published version four to start off with. So
00:01:47 - an IP version four address looks something like,;
00:01:50 - where each one of these represents an OCTET,
00:01:55 - it's a four OCTET address and each one of them represents one bite
00:01:59 - of information. You'll often times here an IP version four address
00:02:04 - referred to as a four byte address or more commonly, which we are going
00:02:08 - to talk about later a 32 bit address. Now it can be
00:02:12 - one of any three different classes. Now there are three classes
00:02:16 - that are usable on their networks today; A, B and C. There is
00:02:21 - a class D and E but we don't use those in our networks; one is
00:02:25 - considered multi cast addresses and the other one is considered
00:02:28 - experimental addresses. So based on the address class that
00:02:34 - it belongs to by default, it will define a subnet mask which divides
00:02:39 - that IP address into a network and host portion. So for example,
00:02:43 - if I had and by default this
00:02:47 - is a class A address because the first number falls between
00:02:50 - one to 126, this number right here.
00:02:53 - I know that by default it has a subnet mask of
00:02:58 - So that tells me that this first 10 right here represents
00:03:02 - the network this host is on and these last three 10s represent
00:03:07 - the host that it is on that network. Now with the class A address
00:03:11 - you get one network here 10 and 16,777,214
00:03:16 - possible hosts
00:03:20 - on that network. Meaning, if every single one of these was to
00:03:23 - go from zero to 255, which is the biggest number
00:03:26 - you can have in an IP address, you would get 60,000,000 some addresses
00:03:29 - that you could use. Now
00:03:32 - the recommended maximum number of hosts per networks is 500,
00:03:37 - so with that in mind you can see that we slightly exceeded
00:03:41 - the 500 recommendation by having the 16,000,000.
00:03:44 - That is one of our needs for subnetting, the skill we're going
00:03:46 - to talk about. So that's what the subnet mask does, is really tell
00:03:51 - where our IP address divides to break into a network
00:03:55 - and host portion. Finally our IP addresses work at layer three
00:03:59 - of the OSI model. They're used for routing, they're used for finding
00:04:02 - the best way to reach a given destination.
00:04:06 - Before we get into the binary, I want to give you a preview
00:04:09 - of what's to come. Right now we are using TCP/IP version four.
00:04:15 - As we speak, as I am speaking to you right now a major
00:04:21 - worldwide transition is taking place into IP version six.
00:04:27 - Now I don't know if you've ever seen an IP version six address before
00:04:30 - but let me show you an example, a lot of people think they are just
00:04:33 - doing something like this,
00:04:35 - that's our version four and they think, oh version six is
00:04:38 - must have two more. No, actually here is a version six address,
00:04:43 - 12AB, it moves to hexadecimal so we now have A through F
00:04:49 - is valid characters; it uses colons
00:04:53 - quit my button there; it uses colons instead of periods now to separate
00:04:56 - them. So we have, there's our first octet- 215C.39AA:54B6:FF6A:
00:05:12 - oh we are still going, 7890 and
00:05:22 - one more, no wait two more; 77AA and
00:05:28 - then finally AABC.
00:05:32 - That my friend is an IP version six address. Needless to
00:05:37 - say we are not going to run out. Well I'm sure people thought
00:05:41 - that with IP version four. They are like, how would we ever run
00:05:44 - out of IP addresses and yet we have. But with IP version six,
00:05:47 - someone far geekier than me actually figured out there with
00:05:51 - that number of addresses, every square inch of the planet earth
00:05:56 - can be assigned 3.7 million addresses per
00:06:00 - square inch, every three square feet of the milky way galaxy
00:06:04 - could have an IP address using this range. I can't
00:06:08 - remember the exact statistic, because I really don't
00:06:11 - commit these of kind of things to memory, but they actually figured
00:06:15 - out that you could give somebody the entire IP version four
00:06:20 - address block, you know with these four octets; you could give them
00:06:23 - an IP address or sorry the whole block, all addresses that
00:06:27 - are in that range once a second and it and this is where
00:06:31 - the statistic becomes fuzzy, but you would actually still not
00:06:35 - run out of IP addresses if you were giving them the whole
00:06:37 - IP version four range, every address possible in IP version four
00:06:40 - once a second and it was something like 700 years.
00:06:45 - Again, I can't remember the exact so don't quote me on that, but
00:06:48 - it's something stupid to where IP version six is going to blow
00:06:51 - it away. Now if you've seen subnetting before you might be thinking
00:06:55 - well when we get to IP version six, we don't have subnetting
00:06:59 - right because there are so many addresses. We do have subnetting
00:07:03 - in IP version six and it's very similar to what we are going to do in
00:07:06 - IP version four, it is just that things get bigger. Now a preview of what's
00:07:10 - to come, this is where we go from the technical side
00:07:13 - to Jeremy's conspiracy theory. I have a feeling
00:07:18 - in the future that you will see everything
00:07:25 - on the planet assigned an IP address. Here's my theory.
00:07:29 - As of right now the technology exists. I actually wrote an article
00:07:33 - about this in Scientific American, the technology exists to
00:07:36 - where everything can be assigned an IP address as it stands
00:07:39 - today. They already make microwave ovens and refrigerators
00:07:42 - with IP addresses that have diagnostic run
00:07:46 - on them remotely by the repair people to see exactly what's
00:07:49 - wrong with them. They have cars that have IP addresses, they have
00:07:53 - pets, you can actually have a chip implanted in your pet and
00:07:57 - as of right now, it's not an assigned an IP address, but it can
00:07:59 - be, you can integrate that with GPS and have
00:08:03 - or something you know where you go in like where's my fluffy
00:08:06 - you know and you find a little blinking fluffy
00:08:09 - icon on the map to show you where fluffy is at.
00:08:13 - They actually have, and this was published in the paper probably
00:08:16 - a couple of months ago over in New York. They have started embedding chips
00:08:21 - in people. It's a voluntary basis and it's a chip the size
00:08:25 - of a grain of rice that's biometrically powered and my mind
00:08:29 - immediately is going to the matrix right now, where they can
00:08:32 - actually track that person and contain a bunch of information about that person
00:08:36 - on that chip. The reason that they are proposing this, is because
00:08:42 - primarily of kidnapping. As of right now in the United States
00:08:45 - we have this thing known as an amber alert, when a child is kidnapped
00:08:48 - they immediately bleep all the TV, the radio, you know, have you
00:08:52 - seen this child kind of thing, but even that can only stretch
00:08:54 - so far. Imagine if you could actually pull up,
00:08:58 - you know being silly there, but you could actually pull up a website
00:09:02 - and find out where your child is at and track the child no
00:09:05 - matter where they go. So that is kind of where I see
00:09:09 - things going is eventually everything will be a part of this
00:09:13 - global network and have an IP address. That's my theory anyway.
00:09:19 - On that note we move from conspiracy theory to working with
00:09:23 - binary. In order to explain how binary works you need to know
00:09:28 - where it originated. There is actually a brilliant scientist named
00:09:32 - Rico who invented construction bricks that were light weight,
00:09:37 - inexpensive and indestructible. You know as of right now we
00:09:40 - have construction bricks, but they're made of concrete, they are
00:09:43 - heavy, you drop them and they will shatter into a bunch pieces and so on.
00:09:47 - So Rico created this brand new construction brick
00:09:50 - and started selling them to the masses. Now while Rico was
00:09:54 - a brilliant scientist, and you can see Rico right there in the picture; while
00:09:58 - he was a brilliant scientist he was not a very good businessman.
00:10:02 - So he hired Bob and Bob was actually was his go to man that
00:10:06 - would fulfill the orders for the clients. So this guy came up,
00:10:10 - this first guy right here, and he said I would like Rico
00:10:13 - 210 of your new bricks.
00:10:17 - Rico would yell back to Bob, hey Bob 210 and Bob would go, okay, okay;
00:10:22 - run across the building grab one
00:10:26 - poof, put the one on the counter. Got one brick. So then Bob
00:10:29 - would run across the building grab another brick, you know, run
00:10:32 - back to the other side and pile the next brick up there. Now
00:10:35 - this guy is sitting there watching this pile slowly go, you
00:10:38 - know, he is kind of smiling, because he is like I am getting my bricks, but man it is going to
00:10:41 - take a while. Bob, you can see frantic Bob over here, just
00:10:46 - sweat pouring off of him. Now you can see the guy behind them right
00:10:49 - here, asking for 120. He is kind of worried right there,
00:10:53 - so that's my worried face and yes I did draw this on my own. Finally
00:10:58 - the last man behind them
00:11:01 - is just angry, he is an angry man, because all he wants is fifteen bricks and
00:11:06 - not only is he the the shortest man in line, now that I see that, but he has to
00:11:10 - wait until all of these bricks get fulfilled before he just gets
00:11:13 - his 15. So you know, 50 bricks into this process, Bob
00:11:17 - finally collapses and is like
00:11:19 - Rico close the store. So Rico drops down his little silver gate.
00:11:23 - You know, all the customers outside- what's going
00:11:26 - on and Rico resuscitates Bob and Bob says we need to find a better
00:11:31 - process, I can't keep up with this. So I'll tell you what. Something I saw at Home
00:11:36 - Depot a while back. I want to implement it in our business, we need to
00:11:40 - palletize. I'm going to create a palette of
00:11:45 - 128 bricks.
00:11:48 - I am going to create second palette of 64 bricks.
00:11:54 - A third palette of 32 bricks, these are our palettes sitting up
00:11:58 - here, a fourth palette of 16 bricks, see the palettes are getting a little smaller,
00:12:04 - eight bricks, four bricks,
00:12:10 - two bricks, don't really need a palette for that, but we might as well, but
00:12:14 - definitely don't need a palette for the final single brick. He
00:12:18 - said, now Rico what I plan on doing is I want to palettize all
00:12:22 - of these things and I will give you flags. Whenever a customer
00:12:26 - comes I would like you to put flags in the palettes that I
00:12:30 - need to move for you and I will use my new handy dandy forklift,
00:12:35 - hi tech there, to move these palettes out to the clients and they will be much
00:12:40 - happier. So Rico decides to try it out, ching ching ching ching
00:12:43 - the metal gate right there moves back up and oh I
00:12:47 - I wiped out our building, hang on, the metal gate moves back up and the
00:12:52 - client is still sitting there waiting for this whole palletizing
00:12:55 - process. He says I still need my 210 bricks, so
00:12:58 - Rico grabs his flag and he says alright, well I'll stick one in the palette
00:13:03 - of 128. So we'll take 210 minus
00:13:07 - 128,
00:13:09 - one, two, one, oh by the way as I do this, I should
00:13:14 - mention that if you're planning on taking the CISCO exam, there
00:13:18 - are no calculators allowed on CISCO exams at all, so if you haven't
00:13:23 - done long hand subtraction, division, basic math skills for a
00:13:27 - little while, you may want to practice those. I had a rude awakening
00:13:31 - when I got into a CISCO examine and had to do long hand division. I thought
00:13:35 - I have completely forgotten how to do this, you know the calculators
00:13:39 - make you stupid. So we've got the first palette is now
00:13:43 - fulfilled; I've got the second palette, take off our 64
00:13:47 - bricks minus and subtract that out, got nine, eight, 12, eight, so 28 left over.
00:13:52 - Don't want to give too much, so we won't put a flag in a palette 32,
00:13:56 - put a flag in sixteen,
00:13:58 - that would be twelve. So a flag in the eight and the four.
00:14:03 - There's our subtraction that will give us twelve.
00:14:06 - No flags in two and it is not bonus birthday, so we will not put
00:14:11 - one in one and there we have it. Bob grabs his forklift and now
00:14:16 - scoots this palette out and we have a much happier customer group.
00:14:19 - Now unbeknownst to them at the time, Rico and Bob had actually
00:14:25 - invented a system to convert to binary. This is the way computers
00:14:30 - actually handle numbers. When we see the number 210,
00:14:34 - the computer actually sees bits. Do you remember we
00:14:39 - talked about early on in the video, not this video
00:14:43 - but the series, we talked about how the computers and networks
00:14:47 - handle size and I talked about bytes going to kilobytes,
00:14:51 - and megabytes and gigabytes and so on, but it said there was one
00:14:54 - thing smaller than a byte and that is a bit. Now do you remember
00:14:58 - how many bits are in a byte,
00:15:01 - eight. So if we have eight bits in a byte, notice let's count them
00:15:06 - up one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight different numbers
00:15:11 - that we have right there. Those eight numbers represent the
00:15:15 - eight bits. So when we see the number 210 behind
00:15:20 - the scenes, the computer actually sees one one wherever you see
00:15:23 - the flags, that's where the ones are; zero, because we don't have a
00:15:27 - flag in the thirty two; one one one zero zero, that is the binary
00:15:33 - equivalent of 210. Now this skill that I am showing
00:15:38 - you right now is essential when you are learning to work with
00:15:41 - subnetting. So let's do another. We have this client
00:15:46 - right here that says, I would like a 120. So
00:15:50 - we will just imagine those flags aren't there, because I can't think
00:15:53 - of a quick easy way to delete them and I'll take 120.
00:15:56 - First we will have black flags.
00:15:59 - First flag goes, no what am I thinking, 120 you
00:16:03 - can't subtract 128 from that, so our first flag
00:16:06 - will go into 64. So 64 subtract that out, two
00:16:10 - one, that will be six one zero, 56. So our second flag 32,
00:16:18 - 32 minus equals four, two, 24. So we have a flag in 16
00:16:26 - and a flag in eight. If you subtract 16 that will give you eight, when you
00:16:30 - subtract eight, that will give you zero. We've done it. So the binary equivalent of
00:16:35 - 120 is really zero one one one
00:16:42 - one zero zero zero, sorry with all those flags it's starting to look confusing.
00:16:49 - I'll clear that off in just a moment. Now when you're practicing this
00:16:52 - skill and I have a practice slide coming up right after this,
00:16:55 - I want to show you how you can actually check your work using the
00:16:58 - Windows calculator.
00:17:00 - In Windows if you click on start and go to run and type in
00:17:04 - CALC, C-A-L-C, the first four letters of calculator, you will get
00:17:08 - this guy popping up. Now you want to make sure that your view
00:17:11 - is set to scientific not standard, because standard won't let you
00:17:14 - do it, that's the standard this is scientific. So if you want
00:17:17 - to know what a binary equivalent we'll do 210. First
00:17:21 - you just type in 210, that's the decimal version. You can see
00:17:24 - the bullet decimal right there and just click this bullet over to binary
00:17:27 - kachunk; that is the binary equivalent. Holy cow, did I do
00:17:33 - that wrong, did I subtract incorrectly.
00:17:39 - No, yes, no, yes I must have; see and this is why we check our
00:17:45 - work. Jeremy must have gone too fast in his subtraction skills. So
00:17:50 - hang on, let's verify this because I'm sure many of you were
00:17:52 - like, no that's not it, 210. First
00:17:58 - flag, I have got flags going everywhere, 128 subtract
00:18:02 - that out, one zero that would be two, 82.
00:18:10 - I came up with 92. Idiot I can't believe that, so 82
00:18:15 - minus 64;
00:18:21 - I feel silly right now, 18, right. So no 32s,
00:18:27 - 16;
00:18:31 - am I on the right track here. Hang on, I am, okay sorry I had to look at the calculator to
00:18:37 - make sure I had that funny wrong feeling. So 18 minus
00:18:41 - 16 is two, so our last flag goes in the two. So forgive
00:18:45 - the scribbles, but the binary equivalent should be one one zero no
00:18:49 - 32s, one sixteen, no eights, no fours, one two, no ones.
00:18:57 - That's
00:19:01 - what it shows right here, perfect.
00:19:04 - I'm glad I showed you how to check that, so you guys
00:19:07 - don't think I'm crazy. Alright so let's just double check 120,
00:19:11 - now. I am going to put 120 as our decimal number and go to binary
00:19:17 - and we can see, okay I know you're thinking it was wrong again, but
00:19:21 - notice that Windows will strip off the leading zero, notice
00:19:24 - we only have seven bits, so zero look right to left on my
00:19:28 - figure here zero zero zero, that's correct, one one one one, that's
00:19:32 - our four ones right there and the calculator doesn't show the zero,
00:19:36 - but I do because I�m working with a full eight bits. Windows will
00:19:39 - strip off any leading zeros that you have. So we did 120
00:19:43 - correctly. So let me take you to a slide where we
00:19:46 - can work through a few more examples.
00:19:49 - So the final slide I have for you is a little binary homework.
00:19:53 - What I would like you to do is watch the initial part where
00:19:57 - I did just set up to do this, but then pause the video and I want you to
00:20:00 - to just grab a piece of paper and try working through these on your
00:20:04 - own and then come back and I will work through them with you to show you
00:20:07 - how to work through each one. The first thing that you want to do
00:20:10 - whenever you're getting ready to convert to binary, is to write
00:20:12 - up your palletized values just at the top of your paper, start
00:20:16 - from the right to left because it's easier that way. You just start
00:20:19 - with one and start multiplying by two; two, four, eight, 16,
00:20:26 - 32, 64, 128. That is our eight binary values
00:20:32 - that we always use when we are converting numbers to binary.
00:20:35 - Now technically these are powers of two, two to the power of
00:20:40 - zero is one. Anything to the power of zero is one. I actually
00:20:45 - had somebody try and explain to me why that is one time and
00:20:48 - to this day I can just say anything to the power of zero is one.
00:20:51 - I am not too sure exactly why the mathematical book formula
00:20:54 - bind works that way, but that's how it works, anything time
00:20:57 - zero zero, but anything to the power of zero is one. So two
00:21:00 - to the power of one is two, that's just one two; two to the power of two
00:21:06 - that's two twos; two times two, that's four. So these are all just powers
00:21:10 - of two and that's how we come up with these different
00:21:12 - numbers. Now that fact will come into huge play later on when we
00:21:17 - get into subnetting, full bore. So go ahead and pause the video if
00:21:21 - you'd like to work through these, because I am going to start with number
00:21:23 - one right here. We have the number 180 and we now need
00:21:26 - to convert that to binary. So start off, pause if you are going
00:21:30 - to pause, if you're gonna watch go ahead. 180. I'll put my first one right
00:21:35 - there, don't need flags anymore. I bet that's what goofed
00:21:38 - me up last time, there's my excuse. So I borrow
00:21:42 - the one, we've got two, 52 can't take a 64, so 32
00:21:48 - subtract that out and we have zero twenty; so one 16
00:21:54 - and one four we'll give us 20, the binary equivalent of
00:21:59 - 180 is one zero one one zero one zero zero.
00:22:04 - See now I'm all nervous after that last mishap, so I am going to just
00:22:08 - make sure; 180 in binary, kachunk we've got one zero one
00:22:13 - one zero one, good. Okay, I feel confident without checking my work now.
00:22:18 - I feel a little better, so that is the first one.
00:22:21 - Second one, 41 into binary. So I'll just keep these up
00:22:26 - here and and work below, 41, I'll say zero zero one that's
00:22:32 - where our first subtraction can come in; 41 minus 32
00:22:36 - is three nine, so we have nine left over zero one zero zero
00:22:42 - one; just eight and a one will give us our nine, subtract that out
00:22:46 - we have zero. So the binary equivalent of forty one, should
00:22:50 - be zero zero one zero one zero zero one.
00:22:55 - Alright now that's converting decimal to binary. Now using
00:22:59 - that skill in reverse you should be able to convert backwards,
00:23:03 - meaning take the decimal values and convert them back into
00:23:08 - binary. So let me just wipe off some of our scratch work right
00:23:11 - there and I am going to start off with this one. It says take zero zero
00:23:15 - one one zero one one zero and convert that to decimal. All I need
00:23:19 - to do is put those values back up underneath our binary chart
00:23:23 - here and then just do some addition. I am going to take 32 plus 16
00:23:32 - plus four plus two and that will give us our decimal value.
00:23:39 - So we've got six and four is 10, two and two is four, so that will
00:23:42 - be 14 carry the one and 54. So that binary value
00:23:49 - is actually 54 in decimal. One more, we'll take this
00:23:53 - one. We've got 128, instead of lining them all up I'll do it a little
00:23:57 - quicker; no 64s, no 32s, one 16, no eight,
00:24:03 - then we have a four and a two; add those up we've
00:24:07 - got 20;
00:24:09 - carry the two, five, 150. So that is a decimal value is
00:24:15 - 150. I would encourage you if you feel weak on this,
00:24:19 - to take any value from zero to 255 in decimal and convert
00:24:25 - it to binary numbers and just make up values in binary and try and convert them
00:24:27 - back to decimal. By the way before we wrap this video up,
00:24:32 - one thing I want to mention is in our IP addresses
00:24:36 - you notice that these numbers can only go from zero to
00:24:40 - 255. Now you know why, we have one byte of information
00:24:47 - in each one of those octets in our IP address, right.
00:24:49 - If you were to change all of these to one. Meaning turn them all in.
00:24:53 - You have a binary value of all ones; what do you think you
00:24:57 - would get if you converted that back to decimal.
00:25:01 - That's it; 255. That's the biggest number
00:25:04 - that we can get by using only one byte of information. So that
00:25:08 - is the reason why our IP addresses only can go from zero to
00:25:12 - 255.
00:25:15 - Let's review. What we did is we walked into this video was start
00:25:19 - off by a review of TCP/IP, just the basics of what an IP
00:25:22 - address was, what its used for and so on. I then gave a sneak
00:25:27 - peak of what's to come with TCP/IP version six and
00:25:31 - even gave a bonus conspiracy theory on top of it all, but the
00:25:34 - essential skill that hopefully you've mastered by this point
00:25:37 - is converting numbers from decimal to binary and back. That
00:25:42 - skill is one of the foundation pieces that you'll need as we
00:25:44 - get more into advance subnetting. I hope this has been informative
00:25:48 - for you and I would like to thank you for viewing.

Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 1

Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 2

Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 3

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Jeremy Cioara

Jeremy Cioara

CBT Nuggets Trainer

Cisco CCNA, CCDA, CCNA Security, CCNA Voice, CCNP, CCSP, CCVP, CCDP, CCIE R&S; Amazon Web Services CSA; Microsoft MCP, MCSE, Novell CNA, CNE; CompTIA A+, Network+, iNet+

Area Of Expertise:
Cisco network administration and development. Author or coauthor of numerous books, including: CCNA Voice 640-461 Official Cert Guide; CCNA Voice Official Exam Certification Guide (640-460 IIUC); CCENT Exam Prep (Exam 640-822); CCNA Exam Cram (Exam 640-802) 3rd Edition; and CCNA Voice 640-461 Official Cert Guide.

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