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Cisco CCNA ICND2 640-816

General Switching: Troubleshooting and Security Best Practices

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Video Titles Duration
1. Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 1
00:33:54
2. Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 2
00:28:45
3. Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 3
00:23:36
4. Switch VLANs: Understanding VLANs
00:16:09
5. Switch VLANs: Understanding Trunks and VTP
00:39:07
6. Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 1
00:35:58
7. Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 2
00:39:36
8. Switch STP: Understanding the Spanning-Tree Protocol
00:28:18
9. Switch STP: Configuring Basic STP
00:21:16
10. Switch STP: Enhancements to STP
00:29:54
11. General Switching: Troubleshooting and Security Best Practices
00:29:23
12. Subnetting: Understanding VLSM
00:18:42
13. Routing Protocols: Distance Vector vs. Link State
00:26:25
14. Routing Protocols: OSPF Concepts
00:30:36
15. Routing Protocols: OSPF Configuration and Troubleshooting
00:39:53
16. Routing Protocols: EIGRP Concepts and Configuration
00:32:28
17. Access-Lists: The Rules of the ACL
00:27:44
18. Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs
00:34:40
19. Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs, Part 2
00:48:42
20. NAT: Understanding the Three Styles of NAT
00:20:00
21. NAT: Command-line NAT Configuration
00:35:41
22. WAN Connections: Concepts of VPN Technology
00:33:20
23. WAN Connections: Implementing PPP Authentication
00:34:39
24. WAN Connections: Understanding Frame Relay
00:28:42
25. WAN Connections: Configuring Frame Relay
00:30:52
26. IPv6: Understanding Basic Concepts and Addressing
00:33:59
27. IPv6: Configuring, Routing, and Interoperating
00:23:36
28. Certification: Some Last Words for Test Takers
00:13:10
29. Advanced TCP/IP: Working with Binary
00:25:51
30. Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 1
00:55:06
31. Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 2
00:22:29
32. Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 3
00:19:53

Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 1

Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 2

Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 3

Switch VLANs: Understanding VLANs

Switch VLANs: Understanding Trunks and VTP

Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 1

Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 2

Switch STP: Understanding the Spanning-Tree Protocol

Switch STP: Configuring Basic STP

Switch STP: Enhancements to STP

General Switching: Troubleshooting and Security Best Practices

00:00:00 - So you're sitting at your desk on a cheery Friday morning and
00:00:05 - your phone rings, you pick it up and answer, hello. The person
00:00:09 - on the other and says hey this is John over in the sales department,
00:00:12 - how are you doing and you'll say good and he'll say I'm having problems. My computer
00:00:16 - I can't do anything, the email doesn't work, the internet
00:00:20 - doesn't work, you know, I don't know what
00:00:24 - to do, but I do know that in the lower hand corner, you know by
00:00:27 - the clock in Windows it has this little picture of the computer
00:00:31 - with an X over it. I think that means something's, something's
00:00:35 - bad. So stop right there, pause on a Friday; what goes through
00:00:39 - your mind as somebody describes to you that in Windows there's a
00:00:43 - little computer with an X over it in the lower right
00:00:45 - hand corner by the clock. Well you may be thinking oh it must be network
00:00:50 - disconnected; it could be a port shut down; it could be a bad
00:00:54 - network card; there's a lot of things that should immediately
00:00:57 - shoot through your mind as you get more and more experience in the
00:00:59 - CISCO world and that's what I hope to give you as you walk
00:01:03 - through this video, is just a switch troubleshooting thought
00:01:06 - process; how to think through problems as they come up.
00:01:10 - I will then show you from my experience some common troubleshooting areas for
00:01:13 - the switched network that you may run across. Finally,
00:01:18 - the layer two world, the data link layer switches, are one of
00:01:22 - the softest squishiest areas for security in the network world
00:01:26 - today. Now that is changing because there's been so much focus
00:01:29 - on firewalls and internet security, that a lot of people have
00:01:34 - left switches behind. As I mentioned that is changing and I want to show
00:01:37 - you some of the best practice from CISCO security recommendations
00:01:41 - for your switch network.
00:01:44 - When troubleshooting a switched network, the number one thing
00:01:48 - that can help you is to be familiar with that network and
00:01:51 - you can partner that was the number two on the screen, absolutely
00:01:55 - have an accurate network diagram. Those two things combined
00:01:59 - together will give you 90% of your troubleshooting.
00:02:03 - For example, you've seen just going through this series,
00:02:06 - the network diagram we've been using has evolved, it's a living
00:02:10 - diagram. As we add trunks to the network, we show lines connecting,
00:02:14 - we label them trunks, we add Vlans to the network, we show what
00:02:17 - ports are in the Vlans, we show WAN links, we show IP
00:02:20 - addresses. In a CISCO admins life, the network diagram is the
00:02:25 - lifeline of the network. If you let that go then troubleshooting
00:02:30 - becomes just a nightmare no matter what. So troubleshooting
00:02:34 - switch networks thankfully
00:02:37 - with those two things in place, with familiarity, that's
00:02:42 - a tough one to say and inaccurate network diagram, it should
00:02:46 - not be too bad. There's not too much they can go wrong at layer
00:02:49 - two. Now
00:02:51 - don't take that to say that there's nothing bad that can happen
00:02:54 - at layer two, there's all kinds of crazy stuff that can go on, but if you
00:02:57 - are familiar and have an accurate network diagram, your 90%
00:03:00 - of the way there. Once those two pieces are in place whenever
00:03:04 - an issue comes up you need to, I guess, learn to work logically.
00:03:09 - This is the best way I can say it, is this is something that only
00:03:12 - comes with experience. I know we're talking at the CCNA
00:03:16 - level, but as you sit in network environments and you
00:03:20 - will get experience as you get your CCNA, as you move into a
00:03:24 - more more network realms, you'll have experience which just common
00:03:28 - things that come up. And you'll be able to work logically from
00:03:31 - the bottom up and what I mean by that is with the OSI model. Now
00:03:36 - the reason I hesitate to say, use the OSI model for troubleshooting,
00:03:40 - is because sometimes it just doesn't make sense. For example
00:03:45 - somebody is saying, hey I can get to these
00:03:49 - websites, but I can't access the server, I don't no can you help me
00:03:52 - out? I mean step one of that isn't to go, well let's think is your
00:03:57 - network cable connected? Is there a break in the line?
00:04:00 - You know insert professional voice man there, I don't know
00:04:04 - where that came from. So you don't, you think okay they're
00:04:08 - surfing the net, they're not able to get to that server, okay,
00:04:12 - maybe there's some routing issues between the Vlans, maybe other
00:04:15 - security between the Vlans that's blocking that person
00:04:18 - from the server. So when you're working logically, you need
00:04:22 - to take the problem that's being described and then apply
00:04:25 - what you know about the network to be true. Meaning if they're
00:04:28 - able to surf the internet that means they are physically connected;
00:04:31 - they're getting out of the network; NAT is working properly.
00:04:34 - All those kinds of things instantly come into your mind, but
00:04:38 - don't have to say that nothing really happens at the physical
00:04:42 - layer. There are times where I'll be troubleshooting a problem
00:04:45 - for an hour and then come to find out, oh
00:04:49 - it's a button on the laptop that turned off the the network card or
00:04:53 - something like that. You know it's just one of those kinds
00:04:55 - of issues. So working logically from the bottom up, combining
00:04:59 - the experience in the familiarity with your network is the
00:05:02 - best troubleshooting process for any network.
00:05:05 - I'm glad I talked about that fault process first, because I was just
00:05:08 - thinking, I am going to give you some common troubleshooting issues that
00:05:12 - you may run into and some of the solutions. This is not one
00:05:15 - of those lists to memorize and say, okay if that happens I do
00:05:18 - this. It needs to blend into that logic and that train of thought
00:05:22 - to think, oh I've heard of something like that before,
00:05:25 - let me check these general areas. So here some of the common
00:05:28 - issues. First off on the port, these are with the physical port themselves.
00:05:32 - Number one cabling issues, never hurts to just verify that things
00:05:36 - are connected right. Second, verify that speed and duplex
00:05:40 - are auto negotiating correctly.
00:05:43 - As I mentioned in some of the previous videos, speed and duplex
00:05:46 - is set to auto by default and it's got, you know, 90-95%
00:05:50 - success rate, so it's pretty good, but that means that you will
00:05:54 - occasionally have a duplex miss negotiation, if that's the word,
00:05:59 - but it's never the speed, the speed always works out okay. It's the
00:06:03 - duplex, one side will be set to half, the other side will be full. What
00:06:07 - will happen is you will get very poor performance from that device, because
00:06:11 - you're dropping tons of packets. Now on some of the switches in
00:06:15 - some, I guess,
00:06:17 - devices that access the network a lot, high traffic devices, it will
00:06:21 - send so many errors to the switch, the switch will shut down the port
00:06:24 - or technically put into a error disabled state. So if it does
00:06:29 - that, that's the better in my opinion, because their port
00:06:32 - goes out and they'll call you right away and you can go and go,
00:06:35 - oh I see you've got a ton of errors, let's figure this out.
00:06:38 - So hard coding the speed and duplex on those ports is the best
00:06:41 - bet. Finally check that the assigned Vlan has not been deleted.
00:06:46 - So here's the scenario, you've got a PC that's plugged
00:06:51 - into a switch and it's assigned a Vlan 10, but Vlan 10
00:06:56 - has been de-commissioned, meaning the company is no
00:06:59 - longer going to be using Vlan 10 for their network. Well
00:07:02 - you may think you've moved all the devices out and then remove
00:07:06 - Vlan 10 and what will happen to this port is it becomes kind of a nothing
00:07:11 - port, it becomes lost literally. The light on the front of the
00:07:15 - port is your best indicator because it will immediately turn
00:07:18 - amber, there will be an orange color, so you can just look at the
00:07:21 - port and go oh there's a problem, do some show commands.
00:07:25 - If a computer is assigned to a port or I should say a port is
00:07:30 - assigned to a Vlan and that Vlan no longer exists, the
00:07:34 - port goes into this limbo state, where it just can't access anything.
00:07:39 - It's not like it goes back to the default Vlan or anything. So you'll
00:07:42 - know if the Vlan has gone, because the device that's attached cannot
00:07:46 - access anything.
00:07:49 - Now we move into the spanning tree issues. Spanning tree issues
00:07:52 - if you have an issue will be a major one. With spanning, well I shouldn't say
00:07:57 - always, but most of the time it's going to be like network down,
00:08:01 - fire in the hole, people screaming and all that kind of stuff. It's
00:08:03 - a major issue. I guess the thing
00:08:08 - that I can tell you that you'll be able to see if there's a
00:08:11 - spanning tree issue, is if you walk into the IT room and look
00:08:15 - at the switches, they'll all be just blinking like mad.
00:08:20 - If you've worked in a network for while, you'll get the general
00:08:23 - feel for just how things look when you walk into the IT room.
00:08:26 - You know you'll see some lights blinking here and there. You know
00:08:29 - some lights are going to be green and solid and so on, but when
00:08:32 - you go into a spanning network where there's a spanning tree
00:08:35 - issue and I should say more specifically a loop has occurred,
00:08:38 - where there's, there's looping packets. You'll know it because
00:08:41 - you'll walk into that IT room and it just looks like
00:08:45 - a Bon Jovi light show, it's just wow, you know everything is
00:08:49 - going crazy and that should immediately trigger in your mind something
00:08:53 - is very wrong, as in you know probably a spanning tree issue.
00:08:57 - What's happening is all of your switches will be pegged, you know
00:09:01 - 90 to 100% processed utilization. All the PCs
00:09:05 - and networks will probably be down, although some may get
00:09:08 - some access but very slowly because everything is so saturated.
00:09:12 - So to solve the immediate issue, grab your network diagram, remember
00:09:16 - that familiarity and disconnect your redundant links. If a loop
00:09:20 - has occurred that means spanning tree is broken down somewhere
00:09:23 - in the network, find the redundancy and start disconnecting it.
00:09:27 - That will eliminate the immediate issue and at least
00:09:31 - get the network back and operational. Sure redundancy isn't in
00:09:34 - place, but that's a side not. We don't need redundancy
00:09:37 - if the networks are down. So from their ensure all links are
00:09:42 - reflected on a network diagram. There is plenty of times, it has
00:09:47 - happened to me, where people just start daisy chaining hubs to another
00:09:50 - hub to another hub and so on. Now we don't get too deep into spanning
00:09:54 - tree in the CCNA level,
00:09:57 - but spanning tree has an effective radius, meaning distance
00:10:03 - of about five devices. So when you have a switch in your network,
00:10:07 - if you plug another switch into it and daisy chain another switch
00:10:10 - and daisy chain another switch, you know what I mean, this daisy chaining effect.
00:10:13 - Well you can get about five away before spanning tree just starts breaking
00:10:16 - down. So somewhere around here if you accidentally connect
00:10:20 - something like that, spanning tree won't be able to detect a
00:10:23 - loop then chaos breaks out. There's actually, I read this; ah I
00:10:27 - wish I could remember what it was. There's this great White
00:10:30 - paper about a hospital. It's literally a CISCO hero story where
00:10:36 - there's this hospital where this exact system occurred. Where they just,
00:10:40 - you know the network kept growing and somebody, just not even
00:10:43 - thinking, plugged this switch and plugged in another computer and the
00:10:46 - entire hospital network went down. Now when you're talking hospitals,
00:10:51 - you're talking life support systems; you're talking doctor
00:10:55 - notification systems, I mean that's a network right there
00:10:58 - where people are depending literally and lives depend
00:11:02 - on the network and CISCO got the call that the whole hospital had
00:11:05 - gone down. This White paper, I've got to find it for you, hang on hand on;
00:11:11 - I've got to write this down. I am opening a little notepad document over here,
00:11:16 - find hospital
00:11:19 - White paper. It's a great read, I'm telling you, because I'll give you
00:11:25 - the climax of the story. CISCO literally throws a bunch
00:11:29 - of CCIE's on a plane from San Jose, flies them
00:11:33 - out to this hospital. Within, it's some goofy amount of time,
00:11:37 - like five hours, they completely gut out the entire hospital
00:11:41 - network and put in all new CISCO equipment.
00:11:44 - They're not even troubleshooting the problem, they're just
00:11:47 - gutting the thing and putting new CISCO gear in to bring the
00:11:50 - network back on line, because you know lives are dependent
00:11:53 - on this. So, anyway it ends up being that the whole story
00:11:57 - is that it was a spanning tree issue that took the hospital
00:12:00 - down. So
00:12:02 - what was I talking about, here we go; so links are reflected
00:12:06 - on the network diagram. Make sure the root, oh that's
00:12:10 - how I got on that story. There's a lot of times where
00:12:13 - people will start daisy chaining things and network diagrams never
00:12:16 - get updated, that's my point in telling you that. A lot
00:12:19 - of times employees say, oh let me hook you up here Fred, they
00:12:22 - just daisy chain a switch, not knowing of the ramifications. So again port
00:12:27 - security is big on that one, we'll talk about that later time. Alright, ensure
00:12:31 - root bridge selection is appropriate. Meaning, find the core switch
00:12:35 - of your network and elect that as your root bridge. Make sure all switches
00:12:40 - are running rapid spanning tree protocol if possible. Meaning,
00:12:44 - if you have a fairly modern network where all the switches
00:12:47 - are newer so rapid spanning tree will recover much faster.
00:12:51 - Alright enough on spanning tree. Vlan and trunking issues. Vlan
00:12:55 - issues, number one watch out for native Vlan mismatch. Now
00:12:59 - again the native Vlan is what a trunk port is assigned to
00:13:04 - if it's not trunking. It was for, if you had a hub in
00:13:08 - the middle of two switches. So if this is a trunk port the native
00:13:11 - Vlan on each of these should be the same by default on
00:13:15 - CISCO switches the native Vlan is one. If you have a native Vlan
00:13:19 - mismatch, the switch will start reporting it on the screen. It will
00:13:23 - say hey, native Vlan mismatch detected and that would be maybe this
00:13:27 - one is Vlan 10 and this is Vlan 1.
00:13:30 - What happens if you have a native Vlan mismatch, is that the
00:13:34 - Vlans will bleed together, meaning traffic from Vlan 1 and broadcasts
00:13:39 - in Vlan 1 will bleed into Vlan 10 and Vlan 10
00:13:42 - broadcasts will bleed into Vlan 1. You can have issues like
00:13:46 - IP addresses from the wrong sub-net being assigned, because
00:13:49 - DHCP requests end up flying to the wrong Vlan. So
00:13:53 - just make sure that on your trunk ports, the native Vlan is set
00:13:57 - to be the same. If you need more info on the native Vlan,
00:13:59 - it's back into the Vlan nuggets. That's where
00:14:03 - we talked about that originally, so I don't want to rehash that
00:14:06 - whole thing here. Hard code trunk ports to on, you might remember
00:14:10 - that by default every port of a CISCO switch is set to
00:14:15 - dynamically negotiate. Meaning if a computer plugs in,
00:14:19 - it becomes an access port, if another switch is detected, it becomes
00:14:22 - a trunk port. That's not good for security and just management
00:14:26 - purposes so just hard code things. Hard code all your
00:14:30 - trunk ports to on, on the ones who want to be trunks. Verify IP addresses
00:14:34 - assignments in a Vlan. Make sure that the Vlan sub-net
00:14:37 - is the same sub-net that all the PC's are ending up with and use
00:14:41 - ping and trace route to diagnose routing issues. Those are your
00:14:44 - best friends when trying to figure out what's wrong with maybe
00:14:47 - your route around the stick that gets you off the Vlan.
00:14:50 - Lastly VTP issues; Vlan trafficking protocol. Number
00:14:55 - one, verify your trunks. VTP is the Vlan trunking protocol,
00:15:00 - it's used to replicate Vlans and I mentioned it when we were talking about
00:15:04 - before, VTP is not a trunking protocol even though it's
00:15:07 - in the name, it just replicates. But the reason it got that name is because
00:15:12 - VTP only works over trunk links. So verify that you
00:15:15 - have trunks. Second, verify all your the VTP info. Make sure
00:15:19 - the domain name, the password, the version numbers and
00:15:22 - VTP modes; you might remember server client or transparent mode
00:15:26 - for VTP. Verify that all those things lineup and last
00:15:31 - but not least you don't find this in many CISCO documentations,
00:15:34 - but to completely flush all Vlan information off a switch,
00:15:40 - you want to go into privileged mode and type in
00:15:45 - delete flash:Vlan.dat. All the Vlan information
00:15:51 - is stored in that file. You'll never see Vlan information
00:15:55 - in the running config. If you do a show run, you'll won't see any VTP,
00:15:59 - nothing, it's all stored in Vlan.dat, it's kept separate.
00:16:02 - So if you want to truly flush a switch, just try again delete
00:16:06 - that file and reboot, that will clear out all the Vlan information.
00:16:12 - Now let's take a turn and look at switch security. Actually
00:16:15 - before we do I want to bring up that hospital White paper I promised
00:16:19 - I would find. I sort of found it, I can't find the original paper itself.
00:16:24 - There was a PDF and if you find that, that would be awesome if you could
00:16:27 - email me. But right on here on Google, I want you to go to Google
00:16:31 - and type in CISCO hospital White paper spanning tree. It's a
00:16:36 - strange string, but that will find it. These first two links are the
00:16:39 - same article. It's a shorter version of the original full article
00:16:43 - which is called All systems down. Actually it's very well
00:16:47 - written, it's almost like a suspense novel.
00:16:51 - They essentially walks through how the hospital
00:16:54 - network failed and the four days that it took to get it up
00:16:58 - and running. Actually and I read through the article again,
00:17:01 - I couldn't stop myself. There was one thing I just
00:17:05 - misspoke on the previous slide, the distance that spanning tree
00:17:08 - can go is seven switches not five. I said five, so they actually
00:17:13 - went beyond seven switches at this network in multiple links.
00:17:16 - So it blew everybody's mind. Alright, with that let's turn back to switch
00:17:20 - security. Most of the focus in networks today and I think I
00:17:24 - mentioned this at the beginning of this video, is on the
00:17:27 - network perimeter. Just about every article and magazine is
00:17:31 - all talking about internet security and how you need to protect
00:17:34 - your internal network from the internet. So everybody focuses
00:17:38 - their eyes right here on this boundary, between the internet
00:17:44 - and the internal switched world. Now
00:17:48 - the problem with that is, first off it's not a problem, you definitely
00:17:52 - need internet security, but it leaves the inside of your network
00:17:56 - like a squishy oreo center. If somebody gets in, then they just
00:18:00 - have fluff to cut through, there's no security there
00:18:03 - to stop them.
00:18:05 - Now thankfully wireless has actually added a lot of eyes to the internal
00:18:08 - network, because wireless broadcasts your internal network to the
00:18:12 - rest of the world, so we've had to increase the security. So
00:18:17 - here is the security checklist that CISCO recommends you go
00:18:20 - through. Number one is physical security. If somebody can get to
00:18:25 - your switch physically they can do a lot of damage very quickly.
00:18:30 - As a matter of fact, I am not to sure how many of you know this,
00:18:32 - but on a CISCO stackable switch, and when I say stackable, I mean just
00:18:36 - the normal small switches you buy for networks, not the big
00:18:40 - chassis ones like the 6500 series, but just a normal switch.
00:18:43 - If you hold the button on the front of the switch, it's
00:18:47 - the little mode button for 10 seconds or more, the switch will
00:18:52 - automatically erase all its configuration and go back to the
00:18:55 - factory default. Now you can turn that feature off, but most people
00:18:59 - don't even know that feature exists so just about every
00:19:02 - switch that I've seen leaves it on. So if somebody busts
00:19:05 - into the IT room or just gets to the switch; we'll not make it
00:19:08 - so dramatic and holds one of those buttons for 10 seconds,
00:19:11 - they can completely nuke the config. So physical security is a
00:19:14 - must. Second, is set passwords and logon banners. We talked about
00:19:19 - that already on console ports, on VT wi-lines, enable
00:19:22 - secret. A third is disable the web server.
00:19:27 - On older IOS last versions, the web server feature is enabled
00:19:31 - by default and even on some of the newer versions. To disable
00:19:35 - it go into global config mode and type in no ip http server.
00:19:40 - That shuts it off. You can also type in no ip http
00:19:45 - secure.
00:19:47 - This one doesn't have it, there's actually on other IOS
00:19:50 - versions the secure server, which is the http S version. That
00:19:55 - one is not on by default, but if you want to shut down both web
00:19:58 - servers that's how you do it. The web interface is most of the
00:20:03 - time not useful anyway. Now some of the newer switches have
00:20:06 - a full-blown graphic interface that show the switch and you
00:20:09 - can actually point and click, it's very pretty, but most
00:20:12 - of most of the older ones don't have that. When I say older
00:20:15 - I mean a year or two old. So they'll just have a text window
00:20:19 - where you can start executing commands and there are some vulnerabilities
00:20:22 - that have been found in that web server. So just turning it
00:20:25 - off is the best bet.
00:20:27 - Limit remote access subnets and we'll talk about access
00:20:30 - lists in a moment, but what that means is don't let people telnet
00:20:34 - into the switch or SSH into the switch that don't belong
00:20:37 - there. If somebody can telnet to the IP address of the
00:20:40 - switch they can just randomly begin trying passwords to break
00:20:44 - in. By using an access list,
00:20:47 - you can say only this IP address or only this subnet of addresses
00:20:53 - is allowed to telnet to the switch or SSH to the
00:20:56 - switch. So when possible, block it down that way. Next use SSH
00:21:01 - rather than telnet. I will fully admit to you that
00:21:04 - SSH is more inconvenient, not only because it's
00:21:09 - a pain to set up, but also because telnet is just about
00:21:14 - embedded in every operating system. You go to Windows and open
00:21:17 - a command prompt and you've got telnet. You don't have to download
00:21:20 - puddy or or tera term in order to get SSH capabilities.
00:21:24 - So telnet is a little bit more inconvenient, but SSH is far more
00:21:29 - secure. Next configure logging. Most people will just leave
00:21:35 - logging at default. Which is on the console. What that means is
00:21:39 - you see right there, I'm connected to the console port,
00:21:42 - every time you do something it will report something to the
00:21:45 - screen or any time an interface goes up or shuts down, it will
00:21:48 - report to you this interface is up or down. All the reporting
00:21:52 - is sent to the console port. Now the best bet to track
00:21:59 - that, is to go into global config mode and type in logging. I'll show you
00:22:05 - the simplest way; logging buffered
00:22:09 - and then type in a memory level. So we'll just say 64,000.
00:22:14 - What that does is allocate 64,000 bytes
00:22:18 - which is a decent amount it's not a huge amount, I'd say it will
00:22:21 - hold maybe
00:22:23 - depending on the type of network, but maybe three, four, five
00:22:26 - days of logging information on what's happening on a switch
00:22:30 - to the memory. So you can then go back and type in show log
00:22:36 - and it will show you all of, well, see; you can see right there 64,000
00:22:39 - bytes. No messages have been generated yet. Here, let me do this.
00:22:44 - Let's generate some messages.
00:22:47 - I'll do a shut down, no shut down. There we go, it's back up, interface 0/24
00:22:55 - shut down, no shut down, just you know get some messages
00:22:59 - going on here, there we go. Now I'm going to go back and do a show log.
00:23:05 - Full command is show logging and you can see all of the stuff
00:23:08 - that happened is saved in that memory buffer. So I can go
00:23:12 - back and see what's going on. Now of course there's going to
00:23:14 - be more interesting stuff than interfaces going up and going down
00:23:18 - on a full production switch, but that is setting up logging.
00:23:21 - The other way that you can log, is you can type in logging from
00:23:25 - global config mode and type in the IP address of a remote
00:23:29 - host. Now that remote host could be just a PC running, I'll show you a handy program
00:23:36 - of the day. It is, let's see if I can remember, let me open a new window
00:23:41 - here. It's
00:23:44 - kiwi syslog; www.kiwi syslog.com;
00:23:52 - right there, Kiwi Syslog. Now if you go here you'll see
00:23:56 - right here a freewee, I can't even say it,
00:23:58 - a freewee, a freeware Syslog Daemon and when you
00:24:03 - click on that you can download this for your PC. It is just
00:24:07 - a pretty nice logging system that will receive these messages
00:24:11 - and you can put them in a table format; you can search through them;
00:24:14 - you can find them; there in a buffer and all that
00:24:17 - kind of stuff. So you install that and run on a PC and then
00:24:21 - you go to your command line and point your switch to the PC
00:24:26 - running the Kiwi Syslog and that will configure logging.
00:24:29 - Now down at the bottom we will see limit CDP reach when possible, limit
00:24:34 - where CDP is running. Now there's two ways to do that. Go
00:24:38 - into global config mode and type in no cdp followed by run, which
00:24:45 - turns off CDP on the switch as a whole, thus the global
00:24:49 - config mode. That will disable CDP everywhere and you will no longer
00:24:54 - be able to see the switch using the CISCO discovery protocol.
00:24:57 - You can also go under each interface if you'd rather do it
00:25:00 - on an interface by interface basis and type in no cdp enable.
00:25:05 - Now the reason that is a good security practice, is because
00:25:10 - CDP is something being originated by the switch. Meaning the
00:25:14 - switch is going to send out CDP broadcasts once every 60
00:25:19 - seconds out of every single port that it's connected to. Somebody
00:25:23 - can just open up a packet sniffer on their computer and receive
00:25:26 - the CDP information, which tells them the name of the switch; the IP
00:25:30 - address of the switch; the IOS version it's running; you know
00:25:33 - all the CDP information we talked about; in was that in this
00:25:37 - series, maybe even the previous series, that you can see on
00:25:40 - all the different devices just in case it was the previous series.
00:25:43 - Let me just make sure. I'll do a show cdp neighbors, that should help refresh your
00:25:48 - memory, show cdp neighbors detail. Seeing what is connected
00:25:52 - to this device via CDP. So a lot of times it's good to turn
00:25:56 - that off. Now you notice I have, when possible, that's because
00:26:00 - a lot of the new CISCO equipment like there IP phones need
00:26:05 - CDP to operate correctly or to operate efficiently I should
00:26:08 - say. So it may not be possible to turn off CDP.
00:26:12 - Last but not least,
00:26:14 - use BPDU guard on port-fast ports. Now you might remember port
00:26:20 - fast was the utility that essentially disabled spanning tree.
00:26:24 - So if you plug in a PC, it immediately goes online rather than
00:26:28 - waiting for the 30 seconds that spanning tree takes to
00:26:31 - make report go active. Now it's always best to couple that with
00:26:35 - BPDU guard. Let me first show you the syntax, then I'll explain
00:26:40 - what that is.
00:26:41 - You go under your interface that is enabled for port fast, you
00:26:46 - type in spanning tree followed by bpduguard. What it says
00:26:50 - is don't accept BPDUs on this interface. Now if you think back,
00:26:55 - if you're thinking BPDUs, that sounds familiar, it's from
00:26:58 - the spanning tree videos earlier in the series. Spanning tree
00:27:02 - uses BPDUs to announce itself. So what BPDU guard does is if you have
00:27:07 - a switch enabled for port fast and you connect
00:27:12 - another switch, well that violates the port fast agreement.
00:27:17 - Port fast is only for PCs. So if a BPDU comes into that port,
00:27:22 - the switch realizes that another switch has been attached to
00:27:25 - that port and it will immediately shut down this interface. BPDU guard
00:27:29 - will take it down. So that's very handy to help prevent
00:27:34 - a lot of loops. It also helps prevent this kind of scenario.
00:27:37 - Somebody plugs in a hub under their cubicle and daisy chains
00:27:41 - to another port in another cubicle which links back to the
00:27:44 - switch. Well the switch will send out a BPDU out this port,
00:27:48 - go through the hub, through another hub and it will come back
00:27:51 - into itself. BPDU guard detects
00:27:56 - that and will shut down both of those interfaces because it
00:27:59 - detects a loop in process. So that is a great one. I want
00:28:03 - to make sure you don't confuse that with BPDU filter.
00:28:07 - BPDU filter is a dangerous one. It says don't accept or I
00:28:12 - should say don't send or receive BPDUs on this interface.
00:28:16 - The reason that's dangerous is it will ignore BPDUs
00:28:21 - coming on that port, it doesn't shut the port down. So somebody
00:28:24 - could set something like this up with BPDU filter turned
00:28:27 - on and the switch would never detect the loop and that's what
00:28:30 - would cause one of those hospital incidents that take the network
00:28:33 - down. That wraps up the troubleshooting and security practices
00:28:39 - for our switch network and that wraps up switches for this entire
00:28:44 - video series. We are not going to talk about switches anymore. It's going to
00:28:47 - be all router concepts from here on out. So let's recap. We saw
00:28:51 - the switch general troubleshooting process looking at the OSI
00:28:55 - model as a guide, using a familiarization with your network
00:29:00 - and a logical network diagram to help you out. We then saw alot of the common
00:29:04 - troubleshooting areas for our switch networks; things like the
00:29:06 - port issues and spanning tree issues. And we saw securing the
00:29:10 - switch network, the best practices that CISCO recommends to lock
00:29:13 - down the inside of your network a little tighter than leaving
00:29:17 - it as is, which is wide open. I hope this has been informative
00:29:21 - for you and I'd like to thank you for viewing.

Subnetting: Understanding VLSM

Routing Protocols: Distance Vector vs. Link State

Routing Protocols: OSPF Concepts

Routing Protocols: OSPF Configuration and Troubleshooting

Routing Protocols: EIGRP Concepts and Configuration

Access-Lists: The Rules of the ACL

Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs

Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs, Part 2

NAT: Understanding the Three Styles of NAT

NAT: Command-line NAT Configuration

WAN Connections: Concepts of VPN Technology

WAN Connections: Implementing PPP Authentication

WAN Connections: Understanding Frame Relay

WAN Connections: Configuring Frame Relay

IPv6: Understanding Basic Concepts and Addressing

IPv6: Configuring, Routing, and Interoperating

Certification: Some Last Words for Test Takers

Advanced TCP/IP: Working with Binary

Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 1

Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 2

Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 3

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Jeremy Cioara

Jeremy Cioara

CBT Nuggets Trainer

Certifications:
Cisco CCNA, CCDA, CCNA Security, CCNA Voice, CCNP, CCSP, CCVP, CCDP, CCIE R&S; Amazon Web Services CSA; Microsoft MCP, MCSE, Novell CNA, CNE; CompTIA A+, Network+, iNet+

Area Of Expertise:
Cisco network administration and development. Author or coauthor of numerous books, including: CCNA Voice 640-461 Official Cert Guide; CCNA Voice Official Exam Certification Guide (640-460 IIUC); CCENT Exam Prep (Exam 640-822); CCNA Exam Cram (Exam 640-802) 3rd Edition; and CCNA Voice 640-461 Official Cert Guide.

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