Cisco CCNA ICND2 640-816

Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 3

by Jeremy Cioara

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Video Title Duration

Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 1

Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 2

Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 3

00:00:00 - All right, we've moved in to rebuilding the small office network
00:00:03 - Part Three. Without any further delay, I'm going to pick up right where
00:00:07 - we left off, which was routing protocols.
00:00:10 - Let's just take a moment to get back up to speed with where
00:00:13 - we left off. In the previous video we set up the foundation
00:00:17 - configuration in all these routers; the names, the passwords
00:00:21 - the IP addresses and the work environment that we were going
00:00:25 - to be working in for the rest of the series. And now we've got
00:00:29 - to a point where all the routers have IP addresses, but they can't
00:00:32 - really reach anything. Well I shouldn't say that, they can only reach
00:00:37 - what they are directly connected to. Since we don't have routing
00:00:40 - turned on, the routers are able to ping local interfaces, because
00:00:44 - that's all they know about. So what we need to do is enable
00:00:48 - a routing protocol or static routes, a bunch of them or let's
00:00:51 - just use a routing protocol, RIP in this example, to get these routers
00:00:55 - to tell each other about what they know. Now we're going to
00:00:58 - set up RIP and use RIP in our initial configurations and later on we're
00:01:02 - going to pull RIP out and put in some other routing protocols and see
00:01:05 - their advantages. Now you also see I've got the internet IP address
00:01:09 - up here, this is Rs, and this is the ISP that we're
00:01:12 - going to be routing to to get off to the internet, but I want
00:01:16 - to hold off on doing that until we set up RIP and I want to show
00:01:18 - you why once we get there. So let's start off on router one.
00:01:25 - To set up a RIP, what i'm going to do is first off do, I've got my
00:01:30 - alias right, so S is for show IP interface brief, get
00:01:34 - a view of the interfaces, so I know exactly what network commands
00:01:37 - to type in. Now I also type in, show IP protocols just to make sure
00:01:41 - there's no running protocols running; it's blank, that's good.
00:01:44 - So we get into the global configuration mode and I'll turn on RIP by typing in
00:01:48 - in router RIP.
00:01:50 - Now that enables RIP, it's like a light switch, I just turned
00:01:54 - on the routing protocol, but I turned it on in version one. Now
00:01:58 - version one came out, the engine was developed in the late 60s,
00:02:02 - I am not kidding. The 1960s was when the the RIP engine was developed that
00:02:06 - we are running right now and we don't want to use that. We want
00:02:09 - the use version two, which came out in around the 80s which
00:02:12 - enhanced a lot of the features, it made it classless. So we can handle
00:02:16 - different submit masks. It added authentication where we could
00:02:19 - have passwords between our routers, that sort of thing. So I want to turn on
00:02:23 - version 2 on all the different devices. Now comes the big
00:02:26 - command, network. We type in network followed by what network
00:02:31 - we would like to run RIP on.
00:02:33 - Well this command does two major things and these are the two
00:02:35 - big ones I want to talk about. When I type in network and am going to follow it
00:02:39 - up with, let me type it in as I say it,
00:02:43 - What that does is tell RIP to advertise this
00:02:50 - network to all of its neighbors. So when RIP starts forming neighbors
00:02:54 - router one is going to send out advertisements saying, hello I know
00:02:57 - about I know
00:03:00 - about this whole network and that's great because that is going
00:03:03 - to be the network that were advertising that we're able to
00:03:07 - reach. Now for router two that's not going to be much information
00:03:11 - because it's going to think, oh well I'm connected to it, so I already
00:03:14 - know about that. I do not want to advertise this network, the
00:03:18 - public network, because I don't want any public routes going
00:03:22 - into my internal system. We're using private addressing
00:03:25 - inside of this company and if we start advertising public
00:03:29 - routes all throughout the system, it can be a bad system for
00:03:33 - security and again I will explain more of that as we get deeper into
00:03:36 - the running protocols. I only want these routers to know about
00:03:39 - their private networks. So
00:03:42 - for router one I am done. Before I go on to router two, let me mention that was
00:03:45 - the first thing that network command does is advertise
00:03:49 - that network to everybody else. The second thing that it does
00:03:52 - is choose what interfaces to send advertisements out of. Now again,
00:03:58 - bad English, but I think you get the point. When I type in
00:04:01 - network that tells
00:04:04 - RIP send hello MS word or send advertisements updates out
00:04:10 - Ethernet 0/0, because it starts with 192.168.1.something
00:04:13 - It's not going to send advertisements out
00:04:17 - on this interface because it doesn't start with 192.168.1.
00:04:19 - 192.168.1.something
00:04:22 - Now final thing, remember in RIP and I know we're using classy
00:04:25 - addressing here, so it's not going to be is obvious, but remember
00:04:28 - in RIP it is still
00:04:31 - in its configuration class full. So for example, if I had
00:04:35 - 10.1.2 network over there to the left, I would
00:04:39 - advertise it into RIP by typing in network,
00:04:44 - because by default 10 is a class A address. So there's
00:04:48 - my cram session on RIP. So now that is configured on router one
00:04:52 - I can jump back and do a show IP protocols; the same command
00:04:55 - I typed right here in return nothing. To find out that RIP is
00:04:59 - running, sending updates, broadcasts once every 30 seconds,
00:05:03 - the next one is due in eight seconds. So we start the count down and it's going to send
00:05:07 - another broadcasts. Now notice down here it doesn't see any other
00:05:10 - routing information sources. That's because no other routers
00:05:14 - are running RIP. Once we get router two running, we should see
00:05:17 - router two as a source of information. We also see the networks
00:05:22 - it's running on and the Ethernet it's sending average, I should
00:05:25 - say the interface that it is sending advertisements out of, good.
00:05:29 - So let's save the R config, hop over here to router two.
00:05:33 - I am going to go into global config mode; let's do that show
00:05:37 - IP interface brief command. Notice I did do space S to execute a show command
00:05:42 - from global config mode and I can see that I've got fast Ethernet 0/0
00:05:46 - and serial 0/1/0, their my valid interfaces
00:05:51 - that will be valuable when I type in router RIP. I'll do version
00:05:55 - two, get version two running and network,
00:06:00 - that will allow it to advertise and talk to router one. Then I'll
00:06:04 - type in the network,
00:06:07 - which allows it to advertise and communicate out the WAN link.
00:06:11 - So at this point I should be able to jump back here and do a
00:06:16 - show IP protocols on router two.
00:06:20 - and see that we are running RIP were advertising for
00:06:24 - 192.168.1 and 2.0 out of these interfaces It hasn't heard
00:06:28 - from router one yet, because it waits 30 seconds before
00:06:32 - it sends the updates, router one is. So I'm sure if we hit the
00:06:35 - up arrow a few times, give it 30 seconds, we will actually see
00:06:38 - that. Let's hop back over router one.
00:06:43 - Do a show IP protocols and you can see, there it is, router one has seen
00:06:47 - router two now as one of its sources. So I should be able
00:06:50 - to do a show IP router now on router one and see one of these networks
00:06:54 - that have been learned by RIP.
00:06:57 - Now remember it only knows about connected interfaces of the box
00:07:00 - so by running RIP we've now learned about
00:07:03 - So at this point I should be able
00:07:07 - to ping, well let's ping everything, let's ping router two,
00:07:10 - two, ping, that's router two's
00:07:15 - IP address, of course we should be able to ping that. How
00:07:18 - about its serial 0/1/0 over here,
00:07:23 -
00:07:25 - Sure enough we are successful, because it knows about
00:07:29 - that RIP router. It can reach that network through this next
00:07:33 - hop IP address. Now let's try and ping router three over here,
00:07:37 -, oh sorry 2.2. It knows about the
00:07:41 - 2.0 network, right, so that should work, right?
00:07:48 - Ah, not so. The reason that it's failing and this is a
00:07:54 - big void in a lot of people's minds when
00:07:58 - they're doing routing. You have to remember routing is always
00:08:00 - a to a two way street, it's a two way process. When router one
00:08:04 - is pinging router three, it's actually sending the packets because
00:08:08 - it knows how to reach that network, it's coming down here and remember
00:08:12 - the source addresses is,,
00:08:15 - it hits router two, because that's the next IP address. Router two knows how
00:08:18 - to get to router three. So if it forwards the packet, ooh down over here
00:08:22 - router three. If we were able to put a packet sniffer around the line will
00:08:26 - actually see the ping request coming from router one and being
00:08:30 - received by router three. The problem is it's coming from a
00:08:35 - source IP address of,
00:08:39 - and router three does not know about 192.168.1
00:08:43 - network yet. So when it's getting those is looking
00:08:46 - at routing table for the return path to send a reply back
00:08:49 - and it' saying, I don't know how to get there. The routers aren't smart
00:08:53 - enough to say, well I saw it come in this interface, so I will just go
00:08:55 - back out that interface, they rely on the routing table for
00:08:59 - everything. So in order to allow those pings to be successful
00:09:03 - to router three right here, we've got to set up RIP over there. So
00:09:08 - I'll top over to router three. I'll do a show IP interface brief, I'm not used to
00:09:12 - my alias yet. I'll go into router RIP version two network
00:09:19 - and 3.0. So it will both send
00:09:24 - advertisements out of and advertise these networks. So with
00:09:29 - that in place,
00:09:31 - lets see if it has happened yet, it may take a moment, oh wow
00:09:33 - that was fast, router three has now learned about
00:09:37 - So if I go back to router one,
00:09:41 - notice all I did was set up RIP, go back to router one and try that
00:09:45 - ping command again, success, we are there, because router three
00:09:50 - now knows how to get back. We should be able to successfully
00:09:53 - ping between everything; 3.1 that's the Ethernet
00:09:57 - interface of router three. As a matter of fact, let's go one step further let's
00:10:00 - do a trace route, enter. See
00:10:05 - right there we went through router two and then we were able to
00:10:08 - reach router three. Now you can see when you ping,
00:10:12 - or when you do a trace route, it does three separate pings
00:10:15 - to each hop. For some reason and it's actually technically described
00:10:19 - on CISCO's website if you're interested enough, it will always drop
00:10:22 - the second ping of the final hop using a trace route. I can't
00:10:27 - remember why that is, but that's the fact. So don't ever worry
00:10:31 - about losing the second ping on the final hop, that's just a known
00:10:34 - issue if you will. So at this point, I am going to hop around and save
00:10:38 - my config on all three of those routers just doing the right
00:10:41 - command. Also remembering that the CCNA approved method is copy
00:10:46 - run start, but right is much easier. So we now have RIP configured,
00:10:51 - I would say we're halfway there, half a check on this step.
00:10:54 - step. Now the next step is the default route.
00:10:59 - Let me just clear off all the scribbles right here and give us a clean
00:11:03 - slate. Alright we're going to now move into this Ethernet
00:11:07 - 0/1 interface up here and get it configured and then we'll set up
00:11:11 - a default router to the internet. So
00:11:15 - move over to router one. Show IP interface brief, there's our Ethernet
00:11:19 - 0/1, it's currently shut down. So let's go in to global
00:11:23 - config mode interface Ethernet0/1
00:11:26 - and how about I scrunch this down a little bit, there we go, so we can see what's going on.
00:11:31 - on. I am going to do the IP address,
00:11:34 -
00:11:39 - Now it's a slash 27 masks, so that will be, convert that to decimal,
00:11:44 -, enter,
00:11:51 - Got that up, sorry I am moving my window around as we go just so
00:11:54 - I can get my best possible view there. So did I do no shut, if
00:11:59 - not there we go. So we've got the address that is set subnet
00:12:03 - mask, so I didn't do a no shut, so the interface has now come up
00:12:06 - and let's do a ping
00:12:09 - which is our ISP, hit enter
00:12:14 - and there we go, we've got this successful ping that is
00:12:18 - now going through. We are able to reach the internet. Now with
00:12:21 - that in place we have an internet connection, but we don't have
00:12:26 - any route to the internet, meaning if I were to ping some
00:12:28 - internet host, I always like pinging that's
00:12:32 - a public DNS server. It's maintained by universities, it's the easiest address
00:12:36 - to remember in the world; great way to test internet access. So
00:12:41 - if I try and ping them and I know that they allow pings,
00:12:43 - it is failing and the reason why is because if I do a show
00:12:48 - IP route, the only thing that this router knows about is the
00:12:52 - RIP route that it's learned about from inside our organization and
00:12:56 - the connected interface to the
00:12:57 - ISP. It doesn't know about the internet routes beyond the ISP. Now
00:13:01 - there's no way RIP is going to manage to that size routing
00:13:04 - table, so what most organizations use and what we will use in here is a static
00:13:09 - default route.
00:13:11 - We do that by typing IP route, all zeros for the IP address,
00:13:16 - all zeros for the subnet mask and then our ISP
00:13:20 - address. So I'll just copy it and save myself some typing,
00:13:24 - and put 97 in there.
00:13:26 - So that says to this router send everything that you don't
00:13:30 - know about over to the ISP. You can see automatically the
00:13:33 - routing table shows, gateway of last resort is
00:13:37 - We also see the static route tagged
00:13:40 - with little star, which means it is the candidate default route.
00:13:44 - So that is the default route for everything. Let's try pinging
00:13:48 - again
00:13:50 - hit enter, glorious. We now have successful pings over to the DNS
00:13:55 - server, we are able to ping the internet. So our internet access
00:13:58 - is now up. Well at least it is from router one, because remember
00:14:03 - all of the other routers in our organization can get to the
00:14:07 - internet, but they're coming from private addresses. As soon
00:14:10 - as they reach the ISP they're going to be blocked, because
00:14:13 - private addresses are not allowed, that's why we have NAT which
00:14:16 - is going to allow us to translate all of those addresses before
00:14:20 - they go. Now I'm not going to do NAT at this point, because that will be something
00:14:26 - that we do later on via the command line. So with the last piece
00:14:30 - in place what I want to do is verify and backup our configuration.
00:14:34 - I want to use the CISCO discovery protocol just like we did on
00:14:37 - the switch to verify are connections. TFTP, that's where we can set it up.
00:14:41 - up at this host right here as the TFTP server 1.50
00:14:46 - and we will copy some of our configurations over there; do show IP router
00:14:49 - interfaces, just verify that everything looks good.
00:14:51 - I am going to start back on router one, because there is still
00:14:55 - one ultra cool thing I want to show you. Router one has the default
00:15:00 - route to the internet, right. He knows how to get to the internet.
00:15:03 - The other routers are not able to reach the internet for
00:15:06 - two reasons, one was the NAT reason I just discussed, but number
00:15:10 - two is they don't have a default route. I would have to go on
00:15:14 - robert two and do the IP router 0.0.0 point it to router
00:15:17 - one and say send everything you don't know about router two to
00:15:20 - router one and I would have to do the same thing on router three.
00:15:23 - That's known as putting in a default router. Now NAT would
00:15:26 - be the second piece of that to allow them to reach the internet.
00:15:29 - What I want to show you is a feature that CISCO has that is
00:15:33 - very cool. It can be done for just about any routing protocol
00:15:38 - and what I can do is go into, in this case, we are using RIP, router
00:15:42 - RIP and type in the command redistribute static.
00:15:47 - Now just by looking at that command it should in your mind trigger
00:15:50 - okay I'm going to send, I am going to redistribute, I am going to send some static routes into the
00:15:55 - RIP process. Now if I do a show IP route, the only static route
00:16:00 - that we have is that default route. So I am advertising that
00:16:04 - route into RIP.
00:16:07 - So what it's done is kept me from having to go to all
00:16:10 - these other routers and give them them a default route. Let me show you.
00:16:13 - I'll hop over to router two and do a show IP route.
00:16:20 - And look at this, a default route learned via RIP it's not a
00:16:24 - static route anymore, that automatically adjusts itself sending
00:16:27 - everything to, which is router one
00:16:30 - that picture. If I were to hop over to router three show IP route,
00:16:35 - I can see that this one has a default route as well, sending
00:16:39 - everything to router two. So that will save you a lot of work
00:16:42 - of having to type in static routes or default routes on every router
00:16:45 - in your organization. Now I should also mention at this point,
00:16:48 - that that is something that is not truly discussed until you
00:16:52 - get to the CCNP video series, so that's bonus
00:16:56 - info, it's good stuff. So we've got verify and back sitting on router
00:17:01 - one; let's do a show CDP neighbors, just to verify our connections.
00:17:07 - Now you can see that I have two connections to CBT switch two. I'm
00:17:10 - actually using the same switch to reach the internet going
00:17:14 - through the internet from that switch and that same which is
00:17:18 - connecting me to the LAN.
00:17:20 - so I'm able to verify my connections there and I
00:17:25 - am going to now back up my configuration on router one. Now TFTP
00:17:29 - this was something that we didn't do in the initial video. I
00:17:32 - just backed up my configuration through notepad, because TFTP
00:17:35 - is useful for backing a bunch of configurations up to a centralized
00:17:40 - server. First things first, TFTP server of choice, this one right here.
00:17:45 - TFTPD 32, by I think it's Ph. Jounin, just
00:17:51 - do a google search for TFTPD32, it's free you
00:17:54 - can download and install it on Windows and it is a great TFTP
00:17:58 - server platform. So
00:18:00 - just by installing this on Windows, double clicking the icon
00:18:03 - poof my local
00:18:07 - This guy right here has become a TFTP server. So if I jump
00:18:12 - on over to my router one, let's make sure that I can ping
00:18:16 - before I do the copy,,
00:18:21 - we are able to ping it. I can type in copy
00:18:27 - config to TFTP, enter. What is the address of the host, it's
00:18:32 - 1.50. What do you want to name that file when you
00:18:36 - copy it over; by default it is going to name it R1 config.
00:18:39 - I'll actually keep that name, but I'll put R1 config.text
00:18:44 - And actually before I do anything I'm going to change my
00:18:48 - directory that's
00:18:51 - is the TFTPs point to a folder on my desktop called
00:18:55 - TFTP, otherwise it just throws files all over my desktop.
00:18:58 - So I've got TFTP as my destination folder, that's what I'll name it, enter, and
00:19:06 - not much action happened there. I can look at the log and you
00:19:09 - see that it received a file from that host in what you received
00:19:13 - the right request for that. Good, so now I'm able to go over to router two,
00:19:17 - I always ping the host before you try and TFTP so it doesn't
00:19:20 - hang there forever if it can't reach it; good, copy running config
00:19:23 - TFTP.
00:19:24 - I'll actually show you another way to do it, I could say,
00:19:28 - tftp:// we'll do
00:19:32 - do r2-c-, what did I name it up there, config.text
00:19:38 - enter and it will automatically have all these things
00:19:43 - filled in for me. So that's a matter of preference if you
00:19:45 - like doing the URL style or just letting it walk through the
00:19:49 - wizard you can you can do either or. So I hit enter, see if I can pop this up in
00:19:53 - time. Oh, we saw it flash. These running configs are very small,
00:19:57 - so you don't see too much copy time and then finally
00:20:00 - let's go over to router three. Since we have RIP set up, router three
00:20:04 - should be able to reach over here to this LAN and be able
00:20:07 - to get it's config over. So do copy running config,
00:20:11 - wait a sec I almost broke my own rule, let's first ping the TFTP server and make
00:20:16 - sure we're able to reach it, sure enough. Now will do a
00:20:21 - see cut and paste is so great, copy running config TFTP ping, we will name it
00:20:27 - router three enter, enter, enter
00:20:30 - and poof, success. We have now copied that over. Now if I,
00:20:35 - see if I can find it, alright
00:20:41 - I am going to display my desktop, which is an empty black hole,
00:20:45 - where is that TFTP folder, there it is, right there. TFTP and bring it up. There is all
00:20:51 - of the configuration files that I have now copied over. Looks like
00:20:55 - I copied router two configure at some point, but config without
00:20:59 - the eye all three of them. If I double click, it opens
00:21:02 - in notepad, which is brutal because note pad does not understand return
00:21:06 - characters, so everything is all in one line here, nice. So what
00:21:10 - I prefer to do if you're using Windows is open with word pad,
00:21:13 - where we will format it much better. So that is creating a true
00:21:17 - backup of all the configurations of our routers. Now one last thing
00:21:22 - I'd like to do and that is backup our IOS. Let me just
00:21:27 - get my network diagram back in place.
00:21:31 - There we go. I want to back up a copy of the IOS just
00:21:36 - so that we can review how to do that. I am sitting on router
00:21:39 - one and I am going to do a show flash, because the IOS is stored
00:21:43 - in flash. There is a 2,600 router, I can see the IOS file name
00:21:46 - right there; so I can type copy flash TFTP,
00:21:51 - let the wizard guide me. This is one you definitely want to copy
00:21:55 - and paste for, because this is so prone to miss types. So I just
00:21:58 - copy that name in there, that's the source, the address of
00:22:02 - the TFTP server still, 192.168.50. It will keep the
00:22:06 - same file as the destination. I hit enter and now you can see
00:22:09 - it's copying that IOS version over. If I grab my TFTP server,
00:22:13 - jump over here you can see that is receiving that file
00:22:18 - from that host. So that is our way that we can backup our
00:22:23 - IOS and also how we upgrade our IOS, we could just
00:22:26 - reverse this command and type copy TFTP flash to copy the IOS
00:22:30 - from the TFTP server into flash. So this is a great way
00:22:35 - to review Rebuilding the Small Office Network.
00:22:41 - Let me get back to my objective slide here. I am hoping that acted as
00:22:45 - a great dive in with both feet sort of review to lay
00:22:50 - that networks foundation before we get into the new stuff.
00:22:53 - Everything from here on out will be building on top of this
00:22:56 - infrastructure, it is going to kind of add the features that we're
00:22:59 - looking for to enhance and grow this network into instead of a
00:23:03 - small office network, move into a medium large even, you
00:23:06 - could say enterprise class some of the enterprise style features
00:23:10 - will be talked about as we go throughout this series. So we're in
00:23:13 - these last two videos, we walked through a review of key router
00:23:17 - concepts; things like running protocol, static routes, assigning
00:23:21 - IP addresses, based configurations and we did a review of the key
00:23:26 - configurations; that's all we did was walk through a complete
00:23:30 - set up of a small office network. I hope this has been informative
00:23:33 - for you and I'd like to thank you for viewing.

Switch VLANs: Understanding VLANs

Switch VLANs: Understanding Trunks and VTP

Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 1

Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 2

Switch STP: Understanding the Spanning-Tree Protocol

Switch STP: Configuring Basic STP

Switch STP: Enhancements to STP

General Switching: Troubleshooting and Security Best Practices

Subnetting: Understanding VLSM

Routing Protocols: Distance Vector vs. Link State

Routing Protocols: OSPF Concepts

Routing Protocols: OSPF Configuration and Troubleshooting

Routing Protocols: EIGRP Concepts and Configuration

Access-Lists: The Rules of the ACL

Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs

Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs, Part 2

NAT: Understanding the Three Styles of NAT

NAT: Command-line NAT Configuration

WAN Connections: Concepts of VPN Technology

WAN Connections: Implementing PPP Authentication

WAN Connections: Understanding Frame Relay

WAN Connections: Configuring Frame Relay

IPv6: Understanding Basic Concepts and Addressing

IPv6: Configuring, Routing, and Interoperating

Certification: Some Last Words for Test Takers

Advanced TCP/IP: Working with Binary

Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 1

Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 2

Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 3

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Jeremy Cioara

Jeremy Cioara

CBT Nuggets Trainer

Cisco CCNA, CCDA, CCNA Security, CCNA Voice, CCNP, CCSP, CCVP, CCDP, CCIE R&S; Amazon Web Services CSA; Microsoft MCP, MCSE, Novell CNA, CNE; CompTIA A+, Network+, iNet+

Area Of Expertise:
Cisco network administration and development. Author or coauthor of numerous books, including: CCNA Voice 640-461 Official Cert Guide; CCNA Voice Official Exam Certification Guide (640-460 IIUC); CCENT Exam Prep (Exam 640-822); CCNA Exam Cram (Exam 640-802) 3rd Edition; and CCNA Voice 640-461 Official Cert Guide.

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