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Cisco CCNA certification proves your professional worth. It tells prospective employers that you can handle the day-to-day work of running a mid- to large-sized Cisco network....
Cisco CCNA certification proves your professional worth. It tells prospective employers that you can handle the day-to-day work of running a mid- to large-sized Cisco network.

The two-exam CCNA process covers lots of innovative features, which better reflect the skills and knowledge you'll need on the job. Passing both exams is your first step towards higher-level Cisco certification, and trainer Jeremy Cioara has mapped these CCNA training videos to the 640-816 test. This CCNA training is not to be missed.

Here's how one user described Jeremy's training: "By the way, Jeremy Cioara has to be by far one of the BEST Cisco trainers I have ever had the privilege to learn from overall. He not only keeps your attention but his energy is contagious and he provides the information at a level where you grasp it rather easily."

The last day to take the 640-816 exam is Sept. 30, 2013. After that date, the only ICND2 exam available will be 200-101. CBT Nuggets has a training course for the 200-101 exam here.

All trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective holders.
1. Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 1 (33 min)
2. Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 2 (28 min)
3. Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 3 (23 min)
4. Switch VLANs: Understanding VLANs (16 min)
5. Switch VLANs: Understanding Trunks and VTP (39 min)
6. Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 1 (35 min)
7. Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 2 (39 min)
8. Switch STP: Understanding the Spanning-Tree Protocol (28 min)
9. Switch STP: Configuring Basic STP (21 min)
10. Switch STP: Enhancements to STP (29 min)
11. General Switching: Troubleshooting and Security Best Practices (29 min)
12. Subnetting: Understanding VLSM (18 min)
13. Routing Protocols: Distance Vector vs. Link State (26 min)
14. Routing Protocols: OSPF Concepts (30 min)
15. Routing Protocols: OSPF Configuration and Troubleshooting (39 min)
16. Routing Protocols: EIGRP Concepts and Configuration (32 min)
17. Access-Lists: The Rules of the ACL (27 min)
18. Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs (34 min)
19. Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs, Part 2 (48 min)
20. NAT: Understanding the Three Styles of NAT (20 min)
21. NAT: Command-line NAT Configuration (35 min)
22. WAN Connections: Concepts of VPN Technology (33 min)
23. WAN Connections: Implementing PPP Authentication (34 min)
24. WAN Connections: Understanding Frame Relay (28 min)
25. WAN Connections: Configuring Frame Relay (30 min)
26. IPv6: Understanding Basic Concepts and Addressing (34 min)
27. IPv6: Configuring, Routing, and Interoperating (23 min)
28. Certification: Some Last Words for Test Takers (13 min)
29. Advanced TCP/IP: Working with Binary (25 min)
30. Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 1 (55 min)
31. Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 2 (22 min)
32. Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 3 (19 min)

Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 1

Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 2

Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 3

Switch VLANs: Understanding VLANs

Switch VLANs: Understanding Trunks and VTP

Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 1

Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 2

Switch STP: Understanding the Spanning-Tree Protocol

Switch STP: Configuring Basic STP

Switch STP: Enhancements to STP

General Switching: Troubleshooting and Security Best Practices

Subnetting: Understanding VLSM

Routing Protocols: Distance Vector vs. Link State

Routing Protocols: OSPF Concepts

Routing Protocols: OSPF Configuration and Troubleshooting

Routing Protocols: EIGRP Concepts and Configuration

Access-Lists: The Rules of the ACL

Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs

Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs, Part 2

NAT: Understanding the Three Styles of NAT

NAT: Command-line NAT Configuration

WAN Connections: Concepts of VPN Technology

WAN Connections: Implementing PPP Authentication

WAN Connections: Understanding Frame Relay


As we continue our journey through WAN connections, we move from the leased line into packet switched networks, of which frame relay is one of them. We're going to take a look at what frame relay is all about. And when I went through the CCNA many, many moons ago, frame relay was one of those concepts that just baffled me and I was so confused on. And I think it was


just because I had -- I had a bad starting point. I really just didn't get the big picture of what frame relay was all about. So that's how I'd like to start. I'll give you the big picture of why frame relay. Why this technology is out there. We'll then get into one of


the big concepts of frame relay, we'll look at the terminology and especially DLCIs; that's the addressing that frame relay uses. And finally, we'll look at frame relay design options. Frame relay originated as a result of service providers monitoring leased lines. Leased lines used to be the way to connect


and people would just buy dedicated bandwidth between their locations. Now the benefit of that is it's your bandwidth. You always use it all the time. The problem is is when that bandwidth is not being used because nobody uses a 100 percent of their bandwidth a 100 percent of the time, it's just sitting there. So the way I see frame relay is kind of the same way I see -- well. Fuddruckers.


If you've ever been to the restaurant Fuddruckers, it is a '50s hamburger restaurant and they have milk shakes that dreams are made of. They have this massive -- when you -- when you order a milk shake, they bring you this massive glass cup. And in that glass cup,


you know, it's -- it's glass and it's got the lines and all that. They just top it off with like strawberry milk shake, to the very top. And the -- that -- you'll never finish that glass cup, but almost to joke with you they give you this silver can that is all of the extra milk shake stuff that they couldn't fit in the glass cup. So if you were to drink both you would most certainly


die. So here's the idea behind Fuddruckers entrepreneurship. You can go to Fuddruckers and order a milk shake and then take that milk shake, stand up on one of the tables and say, "Ladies and gentlemen of Fuddruckers, fellow patrons, I have ordered a strawberry milk shake. We all know if I drink this milk shake in its entirety


I will most certainly die of heart disease by next year. So what I propose is this: I will sell straws into this milk shake for we'll -- we'll give you the, you know, the larger straw -- the McDonald's size straw for 25 cents. And you can tap into my milk shake with me for 25 cents with the McDonald straw. Now, if you're on a budget, I'll give you a normal straw for ten cents.


And if you are on an extreme budget -- you might be married -- I'll give you a coffee stirrer for a penny and you can tap into my milk shake with this coffee stirrer. So what you do is you sell all these straws, make a bunch of friends, make all your money back on that milkshake and maybe even a little profit and you get some milk shake yourself. That's the idea behind frame relay


and that's the idea behind packet switched networks. Service providers watch these leased lines and said there's bandwidth this not used. Tell you what, let's do this: let's make a big cloud of bandwidth, you know, gigs and gigs of bandwidth inside of this cloud. And what we'll do is to have this in somewhat of a


pool. We will sell straws through this cloud or that can connect different sites together. If somebody is not using their bandwidth and frame relay and chances are somebody else is. And that's the whole idea behind this kind of network. Now frame relay is part of the packet switched class of networks of which X.25 was the first one. Now it's evolved over the years. X.25 became frame relay and -- and then frame relay became ATM. And then ATM and all these


were -- have kind of been transitioning over the last few years into a technology called MPLS. But it all works in a similar way in that you have this big blob of bandwidth and if you're not using your bandwidth someone else is. Now the power behind that is the service provider can sell you cheaper connections because they don't have to dedicate all that bandwidth to you. The


service provider can also over-provision that cloud. Like let's say there's -- oh, we'll say two gigabits per second of bandwidth available over here. The service provider can sell, we'll say three gigabits per second to all of its customers because in all their studies and monitoring and -- and testing of these networks, they have determined that you know with this ratio they're able to sell this and still meet all the customer demands. Because again not everybody's


going to use all their bandwidth all at the same time. I guess you could also think about frame relay as a bank in the sense that the bank lends out more money than it has because they're making the bet that not everybody is going to come, withdraw all their money at the same time. If they did, the bank would


run out and not everybody would get their money. Same way with bandwidth. So half of the game in frame relay is just getting used to the terminology and how these connections work because it's a very different than ethernet and even leased lines. The first


term that we have is committed information rate. This is the bottom line; the minimum bandwidth that the service provider guarantees you. So if -- let's say I had this office here in Arizona, I might sign up for a committed information rate -- a CIR of 500 kilobits per second.


Now when you think of a minimum; that's the bottom line. A lot of times in frame relay you can actually burst -- it's known as bursting above your committed information rate if the bandwidth is available. Now there is a kind of a common line of courtesy that if you're always boosting above and always using more bandwidth, the service provider will monitor that and let you know and say, "Hey, you really need to start paying us more money to up your CIR because you are continually using more bandwidth than what -- what you're paying for.


So that comes back to the local access rate. The local access rate is physically how fast that circuit can go. And this is one of the big differences between ethernets. When we think about ethernet, we think of things like fast ethernet. When I plug in that cable, that cable can go a 100 megabits per second and if my computer can send a 100 megabits per second the cable can handle it. Well, there in lies one of the big differences in frame


relay. You might have a local access rate of 2 megabits per second, but a CRR -- a CIR of 500 kilobits per second. So even though the physical cable can handle 2 megabits per second, you're only paying for 500 kilobits per second and you should be configuring your router to only send at that rate unless you have some kind of bursting agreement set up with your service provider. So that's one of the -- the first differences,


is a logical and physical speed mismatch. Now down below you see local management interface or LMI. LMI is the language you speak between your router and the service provider. LMI lies right here. It is a signaling protocol that the service provider can use to send you statistics online. It can tell you, you know, the


status at that, the relative quality of your transmissions. If it's dropping packets, it will even -- you can even use LMI to send it DLCI information and that's one of the big terms next. You see DLCI. Ethernet uses Mac addresses, right? You've sent from this source to this destination. Well, in frame relay you use DLCIs; that's


the frame relay equivalent of Mac addresses. They work quite a bit differently than Mac addresses, or I guess, you can think of them as backwards, but we're going to talk about that on the next slide. So I don't want to get to deep in to DLCIs. For now you can just think that every single one of these sites is identified by a DLCI -- a data link connection identifier that allows it to communicate.


Now you notice I put little dotted lines through the cloud; it's almost my instinct. I wasn't even thinking, but those little dotted lines represent our last term here, which is permanent virtual circuit or PVC. When you sign up for a frame relay service provider


you will typically have -- we'll say in Arizona -- a single connection to the cloud. Serial 0/0 we'll say. It's connected right here to the service provider. Now once you get into that service provider, you can pay for one or more PVCs which dictates where that service provider can take you to. So I might buy in Arizona a PVC that goes to Florida.


Now every single one of those PVCs has a CIR. Now we're getting weird; right? So for example, I could have a PVC from Arizona to Florida that has a 500 kilobit per second CIR. Now I can also buy a second PVC from Arizona to California that has a 800 kilobit per second CIR. So total, if you look at that, you know, 500 plus 800; that's about 1300 or one 1.3 megabits per second of bandwidth that I have there. And as long as I don't exceed my local


access rate, I'm okay. I can, you know, keep bundling all these together. Now every single one of these PVCs has a reoccuring monthly cost. So the more PVCs you have, the more you're going to pay for your frame relay circuit. And because of that a lot of times


companies will just have as few PVCs as they can, like what you see right here. Arizona is connected to California, Florida and we'll say Texas. That's our three PVCs, but Florida is not connected directly to California. It has to go through Arizona to get there. This


is actually known as a hub and spoke frame relay design. Again we'll talk about that more later. The main thing I want to focus on is the PVCs. This is a shift -- a paradigm shift for many people because if you're used to leased lines, a router connected to another router, you can think of, you know, serial zero goes to the Texas router, period. It


doesn't go anywhere else, but in Arizona serial 0/0 could be the same interface you used to reach three, four, five different offices depending on how many PVCs you're paying for. So it's a little shift. Think about frame relay more so like VPNs, if you can think back to that WAN connection video where I said you've got one physical link, but it can connect to many different sites across the internet. In the same way frame


relay can have one physical interface that's connected to many places. Now let's dig a little bit deeper on that concept of DLCI. How do DLCIs work? This, to review just from the previous slide is the addressing that frame relay uses. It's like a frame relay quote-unquote Mac address. The reason DLCIs


can get so confusing is because we're used to the ethernet world. If you've got two devices that want to communicate using ethernet, we have a source Mac and we have a destination Mac. When this computer wants to send some data to that computer it sends from this source to that destination; that's what we're used to. Frame relay flips that whole thing on end.


DLCIs are known as locally significant and let me show you what that means. In Missouri, I might have DLCI 200. Texas might be DLCI 300. California might be DLCI 400. Now Arizona might have DLCI 100, 300, and well, hang on. Let me not do that yet. I'll do 500 and 900. Okay? These DLCI numbers can be any number from -- well, technically 16 to about a 1024. So any number in that range. Now again, what we're used to is this Mac address


concept, so we would think well when Missouri sends to Arizona where coming from a source of 200 and going to a destination of 100, right? No. In frame relay it's exactly the opposite. When Missouri sends some data to the frame relay service provider, if it wants to go to Arizona, it's going to send it to DLCI 200; that's the destination. The service provider will take that data through the cloud and when it comes out in Arizona it comes out on DLCI 100. Whoa, weird; that's how frame relay works. The best way I can describe this


and the best analogy that I can paint for you is going to the airport. This weekend my wife and I are flying out to California for a little Christmas vacation. And we're going to go to the to the airlines and when we get there we're -- we're going to be boarding on Southwest Airlines. And we'll look at the little


monitor and it will say you are departing out of gate B-23. So Sue and I -- that's my wife, will go to gate B-23 with our little infant, Isabella. And we will -- we will walk up to that gate and sit down in the terminal and the plane will land; we'll board the plane; fly through the air. Isabella, Sue and Jeremy are all on the


plane, you know, flying through the air. And when we get to California we step out and I happened to turn around me and I notice that I just walked in on gate A-5. Whoa, freeze, right there. Did some kind of trickery happen in the air? I know what you're thinking. Maybe? Maybe there is some kind of strange thing that happened.


No, not all. All that happened is you left out of one gate and you landed and arrived on another; that's the concept of frame relay. When you're sending from, we'll say, Missouri to Arizona you leave on DLCI 500. When you send some data, it's going to that destination DLCI or -- did I say 500? I meant 200. You're leaving on DLCI 200, flying through the air fly, fly, fly, fly through the cloud and then you land and come out on DLCI 100. If Arizona wants to get to, we'll say, California it will send data to a destination or leave on DLCI 900, fly through the air and come out in California on DLCI 400. Now with that in mind, let me show you something that might just blow your mind. It might not but


it might. Sometimes service providers will do something like this: California has DLCI 300 to get back to Arizona, but so does Texas. And while we're at it, let's go crazy. So does Missouri. Missouri also uses DLCI 300 to get back to Arizona. Hey, you might be thinking, ah, you know, everything in your TCP/IP body right now is like you -- you can't do that; that's an address conflict. Or you're thinking of Mac addresses. You can't have the


same Mac address. Well, that's the difference of dell season. Now we come back to this DLCIs. Oh, no, I lost my underline. DLCIs are locally significant. That means that DLCI 300 in Missouri, means something in Missouri that could be very different than what DLCI 300 means in Texas. You could even do this. Why not? Let's go crazy.


In Arizona, we also have DLCI 300. Wow, the reason this is possible is because DLCIs are locally significant, which means when you send data in Arizona to the Arizona service provider on DLCI number 300, they have a little map in their Arizona -- notice I'm emphasizing -- a routing table that says if they send DLCI 300 in Arizona that needs to go through our network blah blah blah, you know all this stuff, you know, happens in the network and then come out on DLCI 300 in Missouri. So the DLCIs are locally significant in that 300 in Arizona means something very different than 300 in Missouri, Texas and California. Now you could not, you know I'll


stop the madness right here, you could not do that; have two 300s on the same interface in the same location. Because that now you've -- you've confused it -- it's two 300s in the same place. You've lost your local significance. So that's the -- the idea of what's possible with frame relay. And


how these DLCI numbers work. Hopefully, that gives you a pretty clear picture of how this addressing works. You just have to remember sending to a DLCI is locally significant. Last thing I'll say. I was trying to think of where I was going next. Last thing I'll say is a lot of -- a lot of questions come


in of what really happens in that cloud? What I'll say here is what happens in the cloud, stays in the cloud. Let's just leave it at that. I'll tell you technically, behind the scenes when you get into that service provider, they tear this DLCI off and throw it away. They rip off the whole frame


relay header and, you know, as you go through this network you're probably hopping from router to router to router to router router to router and coming out in Arizona. If you were do it to do a trace route though, you never see any of that. It's all hidden to you;


that's why the cloud is invisible. You just see that you came in, the packet is like whoa, it just totally gets its headers torn off spun around and turned back around, ends up walking out in Arizona never knew what hit it. Now because of the way PVCs work, there are really three ways that you can design your frame relay network. You can see that the


most common way because it's the cheapest is the hub-and-spoke. That's where you have one hub, right here, you can see Arizona. And all the other offices are spokes. So there's my hub. Now the beauty of this is the cost. It is the cheapest way to get all the offices together. The disadvantages are number one;


you've got a single point of failure. If Arizona goes down, everybody goes down with it. Second thing is now that we are getting these voice-over IP networks, we also have to consider something known as delay. What delay is, is how long it takes a packet to get from one place to another. Now with data, delay didn't really matter.


You could send stuff and as long as the bandwidth was there and it got there eventually it would be fine. It might just take the bar a little longer to go across the screen if there's a huge delay. But in voice, let's say, you've got a -- a phone over here in Missouri,


and it wants to talk to a phone over here in California, with frame relay if you have to go to California you have to go through the hub -- Arizona, get processed, loop back around and then be sent out to California to reach that phone. That can cause some considerable delay especially if the hub is pretty far away from these two spokes. Now the longer delay you have, the


worst quality voice-over IP call you're gonna end up having and you might have calls that break up; calls where you're -- it's just unnatural, you're trying to talk to somebody and it's -- it's so long before they respond. You start overlapping, it's not


good. So we're starting to see some significant disadvantages along the -- nowadays with this hub-and-spoke design. So you might flip on the other sign and go well let's do a full mesh. Full mesh is where every office has a PVC to every other office. You can see Missouri has full connections to Arizona, Texas and Californians.


So does Texas and so does California. This is the ideal design but now you're getting into the big disadvantage of cost. This is the most expensive design you can have and the more offices you add, the more it grows exponentially because then you have to link everybody to this office and add redundant connections and so on. So the cost keeps going up in the full mesh. So what


people usually end up negotiating on is a partial mesh, meaning your critical sites like Arizona in this case has full connectivity to all the other offices. California's got a redundant link between Texas and Arizona, but you can see Missouri maybe, you know, these guys just play online games all day, anyway. So they just have a single


PVC; that's -- when layoffs come. Just make sure that you're not the single PVC location that -- that because they're not the critical ones. So that's usually a good compromise between redundancy, performance and cost. The last thing we'll talk about is the logic or the design idea when you're configuring your interfaces for frame relay.


And this leads into the next video on frame relay configuration. You can design your network in either a multi port point fashion or a point-to-point fashion. Now multipoint in my opinion is a poor design strategy. The reason I say that is because all of the routers are on the same subnet. Now it makes the routers


believe as though it's kind of like an ethernet network, where Arizona can send out a message in, you know, Missouri, Texas and California would get it. But the problem is you can see only Arizona can do that. If California sends out a political broadcast or a message, only Arizona receives it because there's only a single PVC between those two offices. So in a multipoint


design, all of the routers are on the same subnet. Notice, everything starts with 192.168.1 here. They're all the same subnet. You have multiple DLCI numbers mapped to the same interface. So in Arizona, Arizona is the only one here with multiple DLCIs it maybe 200, 300, and 400 are what connect it to the other offices. We would map those to this interface and it would all go out the same direction.


Lastly, this is known to cause problems with split horizon. Now there's your pop quiz. Do you remember what split horizon is? It came back from when we were talking about distance vector and link state routing protocols. There's a specific video earlier in the city's -- earlier in the series that is distance vector versus link state. In there, split horizon


was introduced as one of the loop prevention mechanisms. It stops loops from happening in your network. The way it did that and the way the rule works, is it says never send an update back in the same direction or out the same interface that it was received from. So if this router on the right was advertising

00:23:04 to this router, this router could never turn back around and advertise; otherwise you could potentially cause a loop. Well, that loop prevention mechanism causes problems in this environment because Missouri might need to send a route update, you know, we see the frame relay portion, but we also have networks behind here.


Maybe Missouri has the 172.16.1 network back down on its lan. Well, it will send a route update to router Arizona through its DLCI and Arizona receives that update and adds it to the routing table that Arizona now knows how to reach Missouri's network. But then the problem is


split horizon tells Arizona, do not send that update back out the same interface you received it on. Are you getting my point here? Serial 0/0 it was received on and so it never turns around and sends it back out, so Texas and California will not hear about the 172.16.1 network update. So the solution in a multipoint design is


to turn it off, meaning I shut off split horizon, a loop prevention mechanism in order for this network to work correctly. My preferred method of configuring a frame relay network is in a point-to-point design or point-to-point configuration. You know, I want to make sure that I emphasise before we go any further into this, that this is something that you choose as somebody configuring a CISCO router. You choose whether you want to use a


multipoint configuration or a point-to-point configuration. It's not something you have to coordinate with the service provider on, or say explain to them oh this is how I'm going to do it; can you please set me up this way. This is something that you do. And in a point-to-point design all the routers are on different


subnets. You can see that I have Missouri on 10 -- which connects to Arizona down here ; that's the subnet between Arizona and Missouri. Arizona to Texas,; over here and I'll explain this shindig in just a moment. A point-to-point design emulates as if I were to draw this out, as if Arizona had individual leased line connections to each one of these places. Whereas multipoint makes Arizona


think it's kind of like it has a ethernet network and everybody's on this same shared subnet, which causes a lot of strange and odd problems that you can -- that you'll have configure. So point-to-point is just a lot more logical. The way you set it up is create a


point-to-point sub interface for each peer. Notice in Arizona, I have serial 0/0 which is the physical interface and there is virtually no configuration underneath that interface. What I do is I create a sub interface serial 0/0.100 -- 0/0.200. These sub interfaces work in the same fashion that they do if you can think back to our VLAN routing. Remember a router on


a stick with VLANs and we created the sub interfaces, one for each VLAN? It's the same way here but we have one sub interface for each DLCI. Now all these other routers only have one DLCI back so you notice, I didn't set up a sub interface on there. But if Missouri needed to connect back to California, we added a second DLCI, I would then go ahead and remove this config from the physical and create two sub interfaces; one to come back to Arizona and one to go down here to California.


So point-to-point design is allowing you to create a separate logical interface or sub interface for each one of those connections that you have. This eliminates the problem with split horizon because when a routing update comes in, the router sees it coming in serial 0/0.100. It doesn't break the split horizon rule to send it back out serial 0/0.200 and.300 that will reach both of those DLCIs. So point-to-point design in my opinion is the best way to go.


In the next video, I'll walk through the configuration of both -- a multipoint and a point-to-point frame relay network. And I'll let you decide which one you think is the best, with no subtle hints for me. So what we saw in this video was the big picture. You can see frame relay


is very different than any other network types that we've talked about so far. We saw a lot of the terminology like committed information rate, being the logical speed you can go; local access rate is the maximum physical speed you can go. DLCIs being the addressing; LMI being the language between you and the service provider. So all of those things go together to


build this frame relay concept. We then took special time to look at DLCIs because the addressing works very different than any of the addressing we've seen so far. Instead of going from a source to a destination, you essentially leave on one DLCI and land on another. Very similar to an airport. Last, but


not least we looked at our frame relay design options where we had the full mesh where everybody had a PVC to everybody; a hub-and-spoke which is exactly the opposite -- you have one hub with links to everybody and then a partial mesh configuration, where we have key sites that have multiple circuits and then not so key sites only have a single. I hope this has been informative for you and I'd like to

WAN Connections: Configuring Frame Relay

IPv6: Understanding Basic Concepts and Addressing

IPv6: Configuring, Routing, and Interoperating

Certification: Some Last Words for Test Takers

Advanced TCP/IP: Working with Binary

Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 1

Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 2

Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 3

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Jeremy Cioara
Nugget trainer since 2003