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Cisco CCNA certification proves your professional worth. It tells prospective employers that you can handle the day-to-day work of running a mid- to large-sized Cisco network....
Cisco CCNA certification proves your professional worth. It tells prospective employers that you can handle the day-to-day work of running a mid- to large-sized Cisco network.

The two-exam CCNA process covers lots of innovative features, which better reflect the skills and knowledge you'll need on the job. Passing both exams is your first step towards higher-level Cisco certification, and trainer Jeremy Cioara has mapped these CCNA training videos to the 640-816 test. This CCNA training is not to be missed.

Here's how one user described Jeremy's training: "By the way, Jeremy Cioara has to be by far one of the BEST Cisco trainers I have ever had the privilege to learn from overall. He not only keeps your attention but his energy is contagious and he provides the information at a level where you grasp it rather easily."

The last day to take the 640-816 exam is Sept. 30, 2013. After that date, the only ICND2 exam available will be 200-101. CBT Nuggets has a training course for the 200-101 exam here.

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1. Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 1 (33 min)
2. Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 2 (28 min)
3. Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 3 (23 min)
4. Switch VLANs: Understanding VLANs (16 min)
5. Switch VLANs: Understanding Trunks and VTP (39 min)
6. Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 1 (35 min)
7. Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 2 (39 min)
8. Switch STP: Understanding the Spanning-Tree Protocol (28 min)
9. Switch STP: Configuring Basic STP (21 min)
10. Switch STP: Enhancements to STP (29 min)
11. General Switching: Troubleshooting and Security Best Practices (29 min)
12. Subnetting: Understanding VLSM (18 min)
13. Routing Protocols: Distance Vector vs. Link State (26 min)
14. Routing Protocols: OSPF Concepts (30 min)
15. Routing Protocols: OSPF Configuration and Troubleshooting (39 min)
16. Routing Protocols: EIGRP Concepts and Configuration (32 min)
17. Access-Lists: The Rules of the ACL (27 min)
18. Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs (34 min)
19. Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs, Part 2 (48 min)
20. NAT: Understanding the Three Styles of NAT (20 min)
21. NAT: Command-line NAT Configuration (35 min)
22. WAN Connections: Concepts of VPN Technology (33 min)
23. WAN Connections: Implementing PPP Authentication (34 min)
24. WAN Connections: Understanding Frame Relay (28 min)
25. WAN Connections: Configuring Frame Relay (30 min)
26. IPv6: Understanding Basic Concepts and Addressing (34 min)
27. IPv6: Configuring, Routing, and Interoperating (23 min)
28. Certification: Some Last Words for Test Takers (13 min)
29. Advanced TCP/IP: Working with Binary (25 min)
30. Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 1 (55 min)
31. Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 2 (22 min)
32. Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 3 (19 min)

Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 1

Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 2

Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 3

Switch VLANs: Understanding VLANs

Switch VLANs: Understanding Trunks and VTP

Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 1

Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 2

Switch STP: Understanding the Spanning-Tree Protocol

Switch STP: Configuring Basic STP

Switch STP: Enhancements to STP

General Switching: Troubleshooting and Security Best Practices

Subnetting: Understanding VLSM

Routing Protocols: Distance Vector vs. Link State

Routing Protocols: OSPF Concepts

Routing Protocols: OSPF Configuration and Troubleshooting

Routing Protocols: EIGRP Concepts and Configuration

Access-Lists: The Rules of the ACL

Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs

Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs, Part 2

NAT: Understanding the Three Styles of NAT

NAT: Command-line NAT Configuration

WAN Connections: Concepts of VPN Technology

WAN Connections: Implementing PPP Authentication

WAN Connections: Understanding Frame Relay

WAN Connections: Configuring Frame Relay

IPv6: Understanding Basic Concepts and Addressing

IPv6: Configuring, Routing, and Interoperating

Certification: Some Last Words for Test Takers

Advanced TCP/IP: Working with Binary

00:00:00

If you have gone through all the videos in the series up to this point, I now deem you ready to move into the advanced TCP/IP section, which as a broader overview really focuses on one concept and that is TCP/IP subnetting. Now if you've been in the technology field for a while, you've probably heard of subnetting before. It's just one of those concepts

00:00:24

that you can't get away from it seems like and a lot of people have many different ways to explain it, in some ways they're very confusing, some ways they're not so confusing. Someways get really heavy into math, some ways do not; so what we're going to do is take a few videos to explain what TCP/IP subnetting is all about. Now the beauty of having this on CBT Nuggets, is

00:00:46

if you ever need more review you can always come back and watch the videos again and again and again and there's plenty of practice that we're going to do as well. So the first piece of understanding subnetting is working with binary. So before we just jump straight

00:01:01

into binary, I want to do a little bit of a review of the basics of the IP protocol, talk about where it comes from, what it does that sort of thing; just a quick high level review and also I'd like to give you a preview of what's to come around the corner with the next version.

00:01:16

Finally we're going to take some time and look at converting numbers from decimal to binary and back, one of the essential skills you must have for subnetting. Well let's start off by doing a little bit of a review on the IP basics. As of right now we're using TCP/IP version four

00:01:32

addresses. Now there's your trivia question, is to figure out what TCP/IP version one two and three really were. I'll save you some time, there was no version one two and three, they just started and really published version four to start off with. So an IP version four address looks something like, 10.10.10.10; where each one of these represents an OCTET, it's a four OCTET address and each one of them represents one bite of information. You'll often times here an IP version four address

00:02:04

referred to as a four byte address or more commonly, which we are going to talk about later a 32 bit address. Now it can be one of any three different classes. Now there are three classes that are usable on their networks today; A, B and C. There is a class D and E but we don't use those in our networks; one is considered multi cast addresses and the other one is considered experimental addresses. So based on the address class that

00:02:34

it belongs to by default, it will define a subnet mask which divides that IP address into a network and host portion. So for example, if I had 10.10.10.10 and by default this is a class A address because the first number falls between one to 126, this number right here. I know that by default it has a subnet mask of 255.0.0.0. So that tells me that this first 10 right here represents the network this host is on and these last three 10s represent the host that it is on that network. Now with the class A address

00:03:11

you get one network here 10 and 16,777,214 possible hosts on that network. Meaning, if every single one of these was to go from zero to 255, which is the biggest number you can have in an IP address, you would get 60,000,000 some addresses that you could use. Now

00:03:32

the recommended maximum number of hosts per networks is 500, so with that in mind you can see that we slightly exceeded the 500 recommendation by having the 16,000,000. That is one of our needs for subnetting, the skill we're going to talk about. So that's what the subnet mask does, is really tell

00:03:51

where our IP address divides to break into a network and host portion. Finally our IP addresses work at layer three of the OSI model. They're used for routing, they're used for finding the best way to reach a given destination. Before we get into the binary, I want to give you a preview of what's to come. Right now we are using TCP/IP version four.

00:04:15

As we speak, as I am speaking to you right now a major worldwide transition is taking place into IP version six. Now I don't know if you've ever seen an IP version six address before but let me show you an example, a lot of people think they are just doing something like this 0.0.0.0., that's our version four and they think, oh version six is must have two more. No, actually here is a version six address,

00:04:43

12AB, it moves to hexadecimal so we now have A through F is valid characters; it uses colons quit my button there; it uses colons instead of periods now to separate them. So we have, there's our first octet- 215C.39AA:54B6:FF6A: oh we are still going, 7890 and one more, no wait two more; 77AA and then finally AABC.

00:05:32

That my friend is an IP version six address. Needless to say we are not going to run out. Well I'm sure people thought that with IP version four. They are like, how would we ever run out of IP addresses and yet we have. But with IP version six, someone far geekier than me actually figured out there with that number of addresses, every square inch of the planet earth can be assigned 3.7 million addresses per square inch, every three square feet of the milky way galaxy could have an IP address using this range. I can't

00:06:08

remember the exact statistic, because I really don't commit these of kind of things to memory, but they actually figured out that you could give somebody the entire IP version four address block, you know with these four octets; you could give them an IP address or sorry the whole block, all addresses that are in that range once a second and it and this is where the statistic becomes fuzzy, but you would actually still not run out of IP addresses if you were giving them the whole IP version four range, every address possible in IP version four once a second and it was something like 700 years. Again, I can't remember the exact so don't quote me on that, but it's something stupid to where IP version six is going to blow it away. Now if you've seen subnetting before you might be thinking

00:06:55

well when we get to IP version six, we don't have subnetting right because there are so many addresses. We do have subnetting in IP version six and it's very similar to what we are going to do in IP version four, it is just that things get bigger. Now a preview of what's

00:07:10

to come, this is where we go from the technical side to Jeremy's conspiracy theory. I have a feeling in the future that you will see everything on the planet assigned an IP address. Here's my theory. As of right now the technology exists. I actually wrote an article

00:07:33

about this in Scientific American, the technology exists to where everything can be assigned an IP address as it stands today. They already make microwave ovens and refrigerators with IP addresses that have diagnostic run on them remotely by the repair people to see exactly what's wrong with them. They have cars that have IP addresses, they have

00:07:53

pets, you can actually have a chip implanted in your pet and as of right now, it's not an assigned an IP address, but it can be, you can integrate that with GPS and have petquest.com or something you know where you go in like where's my fluffy you know and you find a little blinking fluffy icon on the map to show you where fluffy is at.

00:08:13

They actually have, and this was published in the paper probably a couple of months ago over in New York. They have started embedding chips in people. It's a voluntary basis and it's a chip the size of a grain of rice that's biometrically powered and my mind immediately is going to the matrix right now, where they can actually track that person and contain a bunch of information about that person on that chip. The reason that they are proposing this, is because

00:08:42

primarily of kidnapping. As of right now in the United States we have this thing known as an amber alert, when a child is kidnapped they immediately bleep all the TV, the radio, you know, have you seen this child kind of thing, but even that can only stretch so far. Imagine if you could actually pull up kidquest.com,

00:08:58

you know being silly there, but you could actually pull up a website and find out where your child is at and track the child no matter where they go. So that is kind of where I see things going is eventually everything will be a part of this global network and have an IP address. That's my theory anyway.

00:09:19

On that note we move from conspiracy theory to working with binary. In order to explain how binary works you need to know where it originated. There is actually a brilliant scientist named Rico who invented construction bricks that were light weight, inexpensive and indestructible. You know as of right now we

00:09:40

have construction bricks, but they're made of concrete, they are heavy, you drop them and they will shatter into a bunch pieces and so on. So Rico created this brand new construction brick and started selling them to the masses. Now while Rico was a brilliant scientist, and you can see Rico right there in the picture; while he was a brilliant scientist he was not a very good businessman.

00:10:02

So he hired Bob and Bob was actually was his go to man that would fulfill the orders for the clients. So this guy came up, this first guy right here, and he said I would like Rico 210 of your new bricks. Rico would yell back to Bob, hey Bob 210 and Bob would go, okay, okay; run across the building grab one poof, put the one on the counter. Got one brick. So then Bob

00:10:29

would run across the building grab another brick, you know, run back to the other side and pile the next brick up there. Now this guy is sitting there watching this pile slowly go, you know, he is kind of smiling, because he is like I am getting my bricks, but man it is going to take a while. Bob, you can see frantic Bob over here, just

00:10:46

sweat pouring off of him. Now you can see the guy behind them right here, asking for 120. He is kind of worried right there, so that's my worried face and yes I did draw this on my own. Finally the last man behind them is just angry, he is an angry man, because all he wants is fifteen bricks and not only is he the the shortest man in line, now that I see that, but he has to wait until all of these bricks get fulfilled before he just gets his 15. So you know, 50 bricks into this process, Bob finally collapses and is like Rico close the store. So Rico drops down his little silver gate.

00:11:23

You know, all the customers outside- what's going on and Rico resuscitates Bob and Bob says we need to find a better process, I can't keep up with this. So I'll tell you what. Something I saw at Home Depot a while back. I want to implement it in our business, we need to

00:11:40

palletize. I'm going to create a palette of 128 bricks. I am going to create second palette of 64 bricks. A third palette of 32 bricks, these are our palettes sitting up here, a fourth palette of 16 bricks, see the palettes are getting a little smaller, eight bricks, four bricks, two bricks, don't really need a palette for that, but we might as well, but definitely don't need a palette for the final single brick. He

00:12:18

said, now Rico what I plan on doing is I want to palettize all of these things and I will give you flags. Whenever a customer comes I would like you to put flags in the palettes that I need to move for you and I will use my new handy dandy forklift, hi tech there, to move these palettes out to the clients and they will be much happier. So Rico decides to try it out, ching ching ching ching

00:12:43

the metal gate right there moves back up and oh I I wiped out our building, hang on, the metal gate moves back up and the client is still sitting there waiting for this whole palletizing process. He says I still need my 210 bricks, so Rico grabs his flag and he says alright, well I'll stick one in the palette of 128. So we'll take 210 minus 128, one, two, one, oh by the way as I do this, I should mention that if you're planning on taking the CISCO exam, there are no calculators allowed on CISCO exams at all, so if you haven't done long hand subtraction, division, basic math skills for a little while, you may want to practice those. I had a rude awakening

00:13:31

when I got into a CISCO examine and had to do long hand division. I thought I have completely forgotten how to do this, you know the calculators make you stupid. So we've got the first palette is now fulfilled; I've got the second palette, take off our 64 bricks minus and subtract that out, got nine, eight, 12, eight, so 28 left over. Don't want to give too much, so we won't put a flag in a palette 32, put a flag in sixteen, that would be twelve. So a flag in the eight and the four.

00:14:03

There's our subtraction that will give us twelve. No flags in two and it is not bonus birthday, so we will not put one in one and there we have it. Bob grabs his forklift and now scoots this palette out and we have a much happier customer group. Now unbeknownst to them at the time, Rico and Bob had actually invented a system to convert to binary. This is the way computers

00:14:30

actually handle numbers. When we see the number 210, the computer actually sees bits. Do you remember we talked about early on in the video, not this video but the series, we talked about how the computers and networks handle size and I talked about bytes going to kilobytes, and megabytes and gigabytes and so on, but it said there was one thing smaller than a byte and that is a bit. Now do you remember

00:14:58

how many bits are in a byte, eight. So if we have eight bits in a byte, notice let's count them up one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight different numbers that we have right there. Those eight numbers represent the eight bits. So when we see the number 210 behind the scenes, the computer actually sees one one wherever you see the flags, that's where the ones are; zero, because we don't have a flag in the thirty two; one one one zero zero, that is the binary equivalent of 210. Now this skill that I am showing you right now is essential when you are learning to work with subnetting. So let's do another. We have this client

00:15:46

right here that says, I would like a 120. So we will just imagine those flags aren't there, because I can't think of a quick easy way to delete them and I'll take 120. First we will have black flags. First flag goes, no what am I thinking, 120 you can't subtract 128 from that, so our first flag will go into 64. So 64 subtract that out, two one, that will be six one zero, 56. So our second flag 32, 32 minus equals four, two, 24. So we have a flag in 16 and a flag in eight. If you subtract 16 that will give you eight, when you subtract eight, that will give you zero. We've done it. So the binary equivalent of

00:16:35

120 is really zero one one one one zero zero zero, sorry with all those flags it's starting to look confusing. I'll clear that off in just a moment. Now when you're practicing this skill and I have a practice slide coming up right after this, I want to show you how you can actually check your work using the Windows calculator.

00:17:00

In Windows if you click on start and go to run and type in CALC, C-A-L-C, the first four letters of calculator, you will get this guy popping up. Now you want to make sure that your view is set to scientific not standard, because standard won't let you do it, that's the standard this is scientific. So if you want

00:17:17

to know what a binary equivalent we'll do 210. First you just type in 210, that's the decimal version. You can see the bullet decimal right there and just click this bullet over to binary kachunk; that is the binary equivalent. Holy cow, did I do that wrong, did I subtract incorrectly.

00:17:39

No, yes, no, yes I must have; see and this is why we check our work. Jeremy must have gone too fast in his subtraction skills. So hang on, let's verify this because I'm sure many of you were like, no that's not it, 210. First flag, I have got flags going everywhere, 128 subtract that out, one zero that would be two, 82. I came up with 92. Idiot I can't believe that, so 82 minus 64; I feel silly right now, 18, right. So no 32s, 16; am I on the right track here. Hang on, I am, okay sorry I had to look at the calculator to

00:18:37

make sure I had that funny wrong feeling. So 18 minus 16 is two, so our last flag goes in the two. So forgive the scribbles, but the binary equivalent should be one one zero no 32s, one sixteen, no eights, no fours, one two, no ones. That's what it shows right here, perfect.

00:19:04

I'm glad I showed you how to check that, so you guys don't think I'm crazy. Alright so let's just double check 120, now. I am going to put 120 as our decimal number and go to binary and we can see, okay I know you're thinking it was wrong again, but notice that Windows will strip off the leading zero, notice we only have seven bits, so zero look right to left on my figure here zero zero zero, that's correct, one one one one, that's our four ones right there and the calculator doesn't show the zero, but I do because I�m working with a full eight bits. Windows will

00:19:39

strip off any leading zeros that you have. So we did 120 correctly. So let me take you to a slide where we can work through a few more examples. So the final slide I have for you is a little binary homework. What I would like you to do is watch the initial part where I did just set up to do this, but then pause the video and I want you to to just grab a piece of paper and try working through these on your own and then come back and I will work through them with you to show you how to work through each one. The first thing that you want to do

00:20:10

whenever you're getting ready to convert to binary, is to write up your palletized values just at the top of your paper, start from the right to left because it's easier that way. You just start with one and start multiplying by two; two, four, eight, 16, 32, 64, 128. That is our eight binary values that we always use when we are converting numbers to binary.

00:20:35

Now technically these are powers of two, two to the power of zero is one. Anything to the power of zero is one. I actually had somebody try and explain to me why that is one time and to this day I can just say anything to the power of zero is one. I am not too sure exactly why the mathematical book formula bind works that way, but that's how it works, anything time zero zero, but anything to the power of zero is one. So two

00:21:00

to the power of one is two, that's just one two; two to the power of two that's two twos; two times two, that's four. So these are all just powers of two and that's how we come up with these different numbers. Now that fact will come into huge play later on when we

00:21:17

get into subnetting, full bore. So go ahead and pause the video if you'd like to work through these, because I am going to start with number one right here. We have the number 180 and we now need to convert that to binary. So start off, pause if you are going

00:21:30

to pause, if you're gonna watch go ahead. 180. I'll put my first one right there, don't need flags anymore. I bet that's what goofed me up last time, there's my excuse. So I borrow the one, we've got two, 52 can't take a 64, so 32 subtract that out and we have zero twenty; so one 16 and one four we'll give us 20, the binary equivalent of 180 is one zero one one zero one zero zero. See now I'm all nervous after that last mishap, so I am going to just make sure; 180 in binary, kachunk we've got one zero one one zero one, good. Okay, I feel confident without checking my work now.

00:22:18

I feel a little better, so that is the first one. Second one, 41 into binary. So I'll just keep these up here and and work below, 41, I'll say zero zero one that's where our first subtraction can come in; 41 minus 32 is three nine, so we have nine left over zero one zero zero one; just eight and a one will give us our nine, subtract that out we have zero. So the binary equivalent of forty one, should

00:22:50

be zero zero one zero one zero zero one. Alright now that's converting decimal to binary. Now using that skill in reverse you should be able to convert backwards, meaning take the decimal values and convert them back into binary. So let me just wipe off some of our scratch work right

00:23:11

there and I am going to start off with this one. It says take zero zero one one zero one one zero and convert that to decimal. All I need to do is put those values back up underneath our binary chart here and then just do some addition. I am going to take 32 plus 16 plus four plus two and that will give us our decimal value.

00:23:39

So we've got six and four is 10, two and two is four, so that will be 14 carry the one and 54. So that binary value is actually 54 in decimal. One more, we'll take this one. We've got 128, instead of lining them all up I'll do it a little quicker; no 64s, no 32s, one 16, no eight, then we have a four and a two; add those up we've got 20; carry the two, five, 150. So that is a decimal value is 150. I would encourage you if you feel weak on this, to take any value from zero to 255 in decimal and convert it to binary numbers and just make up values in binary and try and convert them back to decimal. By the way before we wrap this video up,

00:24:32

one thing I want to mention is in our IP addresses you notice that these numbers can only go from zero to 255. Now you know why, we have one byte of information in each one of those octets in our IP address, right. If you were to change all of these to one. Meaning turn them all in.

00:24:53

You have a binary value of all ones; what do you think you would get if you converted that back to decimal. That's it; 255. That's the biggest number that we can get by using only one byte of information. So that is the reason why our IP addresses only can go from zero to 255. Let's review. What we did is we walked into this video was start

00:25:19

off by a review of TCP/IP, just the basics of what an IP address was, what its used for and so on. I then gave a sneak peak of what's to come with TCP/IP version six and even gave a bonus conspiracy theory on top of it all, but the essential skill that hopefully you've mastered by this point is converting numbers from decimal to binary and back. That

Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 1

Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 2

Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 3

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Jeremy Cioara
Nugget trainer since 2003