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Cisco CCNA certification proves your professional worth. It tells prospective employers that you can handle the day-to-day work of running a mid- to large-sized Cisco network....
Cisco CCNA certification proves your professional worth. It tells prospective employers that you can handle the day-to-day work of running a mid- to large-sized Cisco network.

The two-exam CCNA process covers lots of innovative features, which better reflect the skills and knowledge you'll need on the job. Passing both exams is your first step towards higher-level Cisco certification, and trainer Jeremy Cioara has mapped these CCNA training videos to the 640-816 test. This CCNA training is not to be missed.

Here's how one user described Jeremy's training: "By the way, Jeremy Cioara has to be by far one of the BEST Cisco trainers I have ever had the privilege to learn from overall. He not only keeps your attention but his energy is contagious and he provides the information at a level where you grasp it rather easily."

The last day to take the 640-816 exam is Sept. 30, 2013. After that date, the only ICND2 exam available will be 200-101. CBT Nuggets has a training course for the 200-101 exam here.

All trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective holders.
1. Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 1 (33 min)
2. Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 2 (28 min)
3. Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 3 (23 min)
4. Switch VLANs: Understanding VLANs (16 min)
5. Switch VLANs: Understanding Trunks and VTP (39 min)
6. Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 1 (35 min)
7. Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 2 (39 min)
8. Switch STP: Understanding the Spanning-Tree Protocol (28 min)
9. Switch STP: Configuring Basic STP (21 min)
10. Switch STP: Enhancements to STP (29 min)
11. General Switching: Troubleshooting and Security Best Practices (29 min)
12. Subnetting: Understanding VLSM (18 min)
13. Routing Protocols: Distance Vector vs. Link State (26 min)
14. Routing Protocols: OSPF Concepts (30 min)
15. Routing Protocols: OSPF Configuration and Troubleshooting (39 min)
16. Routing Protocols: EIGRP Concepts and Configuration (32 min)
17. Access-Lists: The Rules of the ACL (27 min)
18. Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs (34 min)
19. Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs, Part 2 (48 min)
20. NAT: Understanding the Three Styles of NAT (20 min)
21. NAT: Command-line NAT Configuration (35 min)
22. WAN Connections: Concepts of VPN Technology (33 min)
23. WAN Connections: Implementing PPP Authentication (34 min)
24. WAN Connections: Understanding Frame Relay (28 min)
25. WAN Connections: Configuring Frame Relay (30 min)
26. IPv6: Understanding Basic Concepts and Addressing (34 min)
27. IPv6: Configuring, Routing, and Interoperating (23 min)
28. Certification: Some Last Words for Test Takers (13 min)
29. Advanced TCP/IP: Working with Binary (25 min)
30. Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 1 (55 min)
31. Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 2 (22 min)
32. Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 3 (19 min)

Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 1

Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 2

Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 3

Switch VLANs: Understanding VLANs

Switch VLANs: Understanding Trunks and VTP

Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 1

Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 2

Switch STP: Understanding the Spanning-Tree Protocol

Switch STP: Configuring Basic STP

Switch STP: Enhancements to STP

General Switching: Troubleshooting and Security Best Practices

Subnetting: Understanding VLSM

Routing Protocols: Distance Vector vs. Link State

Routing Protocols: OSPF Concepts

Routing Protocols: OSPF Configuration and Troubleshooting

Routing Protocols: EIGRP Concepts and Configuration

Access-Lists: The Rules of the ACL

Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs

Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs, Part 2

NAT: Understanding the Three Styles of NAT

NAT: Command-line NAT Configuration

WAN Connections: Concepts of VPN Technology

WAN Connections: Implementing PPP Authentication

WAN Connections: Understanding Frame Relay

WAN Connections: Configuring Frame Relay

IPv6: Understanding Basic Concepts and Addressing

00:00:00

It's the final topic of the CCNA series, and I'd like to say we saved the best for last because it's a cool one, TCP/IPv6. This marks a pretty monumental day because TCP/IPv6 has actually been out for a long time, more than a decade. I remember teaching back in 1997-98 timeframe. One of, one of the first areas

00:00:26

I taught in was Microsoft and I was teaching Microsoft Internet Information Server 3, and I remember saying, I believe that the whole Internet will be TCP/IPv6 by the year 2003 because I just, I pulled the data out of the year because I figured it's gotta be by then, right? And well 2003 came and went and my prediction went unheard until now, until 2008 timeframe and we're now looking at TCP/IPv6 as a very viable alternative and it's starting to move into all CISCO curriculums. So what we're going to talk about as we get into

00:01:02

here is understanding the basic concepts and addressing. We're not going to be able to go in depth into every, everything TCP/IPv6, but this will give you a very good idea of where this technology is going and what it's going to look like. First question I want to ask is will we ever need to upgrade

00:01:20

to IPv6? Meaning we've survived this long in IPv4, is there really a need? We'll then look at the IPv6 addressing format and what the new kinds of addressing look like. They're big. We'll then look at the headers and address types because there's many different kinds of IP addresses in IPv6, and we'll do some in-depth exploration into what these new addresses look like and even basics of how we can start subnetting.

00:01:47

Do we really need IPv6? The answer is yes, but it's more of a hidden thing, kind of like spam, email spam. Email spam in recent years has reached all new levels in that there are literally hundreds of thousands of spam emails being sent out every single minute all around the globe. We know there's a problem but we've got spam filters

00:02:13

that are good enough to detect most of the spam and filter it out of our corporate email accounts. So we just kind of are turning a blind eye, but we need to fix the spam problem. We need a solution. It's just as of right now we kind of have this band-aid in place of filtering that people are just like, okay, we'll just, we'll pretend the spam is not really there. In the same sense

00:02:33

we've got IP addresses on the Internet, and we've had TCP/IPv4 for years that has been running NAT. We have NAT happening to where we can have hundreds of clients share the same public IP address on the Internet as they go out. So there's a problem, there's an IP address

00:02:52

shortage but it's so hidden. It's kind of like the spam filter. It's like, well we'll just pretend that there's not really a shortage because NAT fixes most of that. The U.S. Have, yes, Virginia, there is an IP address shortage. It's kind of like the, the famous Santa Claus editorial, but the U.S.A.,

00:03:10

the United States who invented the Internet is still sitting pretty in the sense that they have tons of public addresses left, a lot of them just sitting there idle and unused. It's the rest of the world where the problem is. Until very recently, how generous, right, the United States gave Asia and Africa a single class C IP address range for their entire country.

00:03:33

Wow. And they were, it was expected that Asia and Africa would use NAT to, to have that one class C IP address kind of last the country. Now recently they have gotten more and that the IP addresses are spreading out, but at the same time there are extreme shortages in countries outside of the United States.

00:03:52

So what I will say, I'll add this little bonus piece right here, the the other countries are actually far ahead of the United States in implementing IPv6 because they have a desperate need for it. The United States is kind of like, ah, yeah, we know there's

00:04:07

a problem, but it hasn't really affected us so much yet so we're very slow and migrating. But the Department of Defense, the people who created the Internet have said the year 2008 will be a big year for them because that's when they'll move all their networks to TCP/IPv6. So it's happening. The United states is just a little slow.

00:04:28

So current IP addresses are poorly allocated. Agencies needing class C back in the day got a whole class B, and they now have all these addresses that they're just sitting on and not really using especially college universities. College universities were the first adopters of the Internet. They

00:04:45

have tons of IP addresses that, well I won't say all of them but many of them have just, I'll, I'll throw one of them out there, University of Utah. I was actually talking with somebody who worked on the ITs out there. They said they have four unused class B public IP addresses just, just because that's what they had. Nothing, nothing against University of Utah. They

00:05:06

just applied for that back in the day, and now they have them and they're just not using them. So estimates on IPv4 exhaustion is largely debated, meaning some people say by the year 2009 we'll be out. Frankly, I really doubt that just because we've lasted this long, and I think we should be able to last a little longer. Some estimates go as far as the year 2041 one where we'll be out, but hopefully by then we've migrated over anyhow. New network devices are on the rise. NAT is currently

00:05:35

seen as a prohibitor of progress rather than a good solution anymore. That NAT is what allows our current Internet version to survive even though we've, we'd have no where near the amount of IP addresses that we need. So I guess let me give you a picture of the future, in my humble opinion. I believe that in the future when

00:06:03

IPv6 is everywhere every single thing on the face on this planet will have an IP address. The technology to do that has been there for quite a while. We have cars that have IP addresses. We have refrigerators and microwave oven, Maytag makes them, that have IP addresses. So the technician

00:06:23

can run diagnostics on the refrigerator remotely without having to send somebody out to figure out what's wrong with it. We have watches that have IP addresses, cell phones that have IP addresses. We have the technology to give pets, animals, dogs, cats IP addresses. All of the pets that you buy at the pet store nowadays

00:06:43

come chipped is what they'll, they'll call it which is a chip that allows you to scan the pet and see who that pet belongs to. Well it's not too hard to modify that chip to have IP address where you could go to dogquest.com and find out where your dog is, you know, using

00:07:01

some GPS signaling and stuff. There was a test done in New York City where people were volunteering to have chips the size of a grain of rice implanted in them that is biometrically powered, meaning their body energy powers these chips, and it allows them to be tracked wherever they go. It's part of an experimental program

00:07:20

that is supposed to help with kidnappings, meaning children that are kidnapped will be able to be found much quicker because well you see where I'm going. If your children are chipped, they will be able to be tracked. Now that's somewhere in the middle of my digression there. We went from facts of cars and, and microwave

00:07:42

oven to my theories of pets and people. But my point in all of this is the technology is there, and when IPv6 comes out you'll have the infrastructure now able to support it. Likewise, in the future, future features we're gonna see IPsec everywhere, meaning IPv6, this next version, has IPsec built in. So all network communication on every network

00:08:10

work can be encrypted. So you'll see a big security rise. You'll see mobility where we can actually move from network to network as we're moving that will help with cars and things like that, has better mobility functions, and IPv6 has a simpler header than IPv4 which will improve on the processing power of all the different routers that use it.

00:08:34

So now let's talk about some of the addressing, IPv6 addresses. When, when people first started hearing about it a lot of people including myself thought it was going to be something like this. You had IPv4 so it would be something like that for version 6. They didn't do that. IPv6 addresses look like that. They are eight octets. I'll go right to left, one, two, three, four,

00:09:00

five, six, seven, eight. With four characters each, it is now converted to hexadecimal, so A through F are valid characters along with numbers zero through nine. The point is that they don't want to do this upgrade ever again. We want to make sure that we can pick in a protocol and stay with it forever. Now

00:09:20

I'm sure when people were creating TCP/IPv4 they thought this will last forever and we ran out of addresses. And here I am IPv6 saying this will last forever, and maybe some guy like me in 50 years will be saying, oh, no, we, we thought we'd have enough addresses. But look at this, when

00:09:38

we moved from 32-bit to 128-bit addressing we moved up to that many addresses. I say that many because I don't know how to pronounce that number. Somewhere around here we have the millions, billions, trillions, and then you lose me. I think somebody told me once it was like a

00:09:59

quintillion or quintrillion, I don't know. It's a lot of addresses. Somebody far geekier than me figured out that with that many addresses we can give every square inch of the planet earth approximately 3.6 million addresses per square inch. Every three square feet of the Milky Way

00:10:20

galaxy can be given an IP address with this scheme. So to tell you that's a lot of addresses. We're not going to be running out any time, any time soon. So because the addresses are so long, they decided to make them more manageable. They divided them into eight groups. So instead of dots like we have

00:10:40

192.168, we have colons. Each group is four hexadecimal characters each. Now you can see these are quite long to write so they came up with rules to eliminate some zeros and make them easier to manage. First off, rule number one is in an IPv6 address you can eliminate groups of consecutive zeros by using a double colon, but you can only use it once per address. So you can see

00:11:10

I had three groups of zero and I was really able to shorten that by just representing those three groups by putting double colons. But you could only use that once in an address. You should never see an address that has two sets of double colons because otherwise you wouldn't know how many zeros went in each location.

00:11:28

Rule number two to shorten addresses is that you can drop leading zeros. So things like 0050 become 50, 0AB4 becomes AB4. So that allows you to really shorten this down to make it more manageable. Now it's still pretty long when you compared it to an IPv4 address, but at least if you're writing it, you're not going to be writing addresses like that every single time.

00:11:53

Along with the bigger address IPv6 also provides a simpler header. I mentioned this when I was talking about the rationale for moving. In ICND1 we talked about an IPv4 four header and all these different fields that are in there like time to live, protocol, the checksum, flags, all kinds of stuff in the header that makes the, the packet harder to process for every single router.

00:12:18

Down here is an IPv6 header. It still has some flags in there like how many hops it can go. Oops, I missed it. This one right here takes the place of time to live and, and, you know, the next header field provides a field for expanding headers and so on. And I don't mean to get into all those. The point is that it is much

00:12:37

simpler. It's a bigger header meaning lengthwise it actually adds more data to the packet because our addresses are so big, but at the same time it's simpler for a router to process because it doesn't have to look at as many fields. Now we'll get into the real meat of the differences between IPv4 and v6 as we look at how they communicate. First off, in IPv6 there are only three types of messages, a unicast, a multicast and an anycast.

00:13:12

Notice that one is missing from the IPv4. Which one? Broadcast. It's gone. Good riddance. Broadcasts are now a thing of yesteryear. In IPv6 there is no such thing as broadcast. It has been replaced by multicast meaning one-to-many. By using multicast I can dictate exactly where messages

00:13:38

are sent to just a certain group of computer, all the computers. Now I will tell you that using multicast you can actually accomplish the same goals as broadcast, and there are some multicast messages that you'll see in IPv6 that are very similar to a broadcast. But the good old broadcast

00:13:55

is gone. We now have unicast which is one-to-one, multicast, one-to-many or, or a group of people, and then an anycast which is one-to-closest. Anycast is going to be pretty awesome because you can, with anycast, give multiple devices the same IP address. So let's say that we have two routers

00:14:15

right here that connect to the Internet. One of them is in a, a branch office and, you know, connects over here and maybe one is a corporate office or, I just went bad somewhere in that. We've got two routers, and we'll say they're both connected. They're, they're redundant for each other in a corporate

00:14:35

office. We have a router here that connects to, you know, one group of users and another connection over here that's another group of users. With an anycast IP address I could actually give both of these routers the same IP address. And when the users go

00:14:50

out to surf the Internet they'll just use whatever IP address is closest to them. Now this example that I gave is, is kind of silly. Here's a better one. Let's say that you have the world. I know, an artist at his best. This is the world and this over in North America or, you know, here's Russia, this is Australia, you're catching the drift. So we've got the world, and let's

00:15:17

take a, a worldwide Internet site like eBay. eBay has servers all over the world, and today they actually is some pretty complex systems to make sure that they load balance correctly and are redundant. So they might have a bunch of servers in the United States. And when I go to eBay.com

00:15:36

it directs me to those servers and I access the ones closest to me. When I am in Russia, if I go to eBay.com there will be a DNS infrastructure set up that will somehow get me to the server closest to me. Now to set something like that up it's very complex, and you have to use load balancers caching servers, there's a lot to it. But within an anycast address you'll

00:15:57

be able to, with IPv6, just give all those servers the same IP address no matter where they are in the world, and the routing protocols will automatically find the closest server to you any time you're trying to communicate with any eBay website. Pretty powerful.

00:16:15

So those are the types of messages. Now in red you can see the types of addresses. This is going to be something we have to get used to as well. In IPv6 your device can have many IP addresses and often times will have many IP addresses that it uses to communicate. There are three different addresses

00:16:35

that are defined right now. First off is a link local address. This is something that you use to communicate in your Layer 2 domain. For example, if you have people that are plugged into the same switch they will use the link local address to communicate with each other. It's just one type of address that's used for local

00:16:54

communication. The next step up is an interesting story, it's the unique or site-local address. Now the name has changed as the IPv6 protocol has evolved, and that address was originally eliminated because people were like, we don't need this. Let me explain what it

00:17:16

is. We today in our organizations use private addressing. We use private addressing because we have a shortage of Internet addresses, and we don't want to pay to assign public addresses to all of our clients. So we're used to this idea of private address, private address, private address. Well in IPv6 we have enough IP addresses to give every device an IP address in the world for years and years and years to come. We don't have any shortage anymore. So this whole concept

00:17:47

of private address should go away meaning we don't need private addresses anymore. But we're so used to them. We have them in the unique and site scope. It's going to be your option whether or not you would like to use a unique local or site local scope in your organization, but those fill the role of "private addresses." You don't have to use

00:18:15

them. It's just that people are so used to using them that, you know, you just can't change. For example, if, if somebody came up with a new way of brushing teeth where I could just walk and push a button and my teeth would automatically get brushed, I would still probably instinctively go to my cabinet and grab the toothbrush and start brushing my teeth every night at least for a couple years because I've just brushed my teeth my whole life, and the fact that I push this button doesn't make me feel like my teeth got brushed. That's, that's a really weird example, but that's kind

00:18:50

of the example of this. For years and years to come we'll probably use unique and site-local scope addresses in IPv6 because it's just what people are used to. They can't fathom. It's even difficult for me to fathom a network without private addresses, but I have a feeling in maybe five to 10 years after IPv6 is adopted we'll be talking about this as like, oh, yeah, we used to have these things called unique and site-local addresses.

00:19:18

Those were for the people that were just so stuck in their ways, they could handle a global scope, you know. That's, that's probably the way people will talk about it, and they'll be describing people like you and I because we're so used to private addresses. But the

00:19:29

global scope this is the Internet or what people are now calling the Internet 2. Global scope are public addresses or addresses that are alive on the Internet. Now the good news is that your organization will be able to have Internet addresses or global addresses for every device that is available within them. Let's look at those addresses in detail starting off with

00:19:55

the link local address. That's the one that's auto-generated just like the PCs nowadays that can't find a DHCP server and they auto-generate that 169.254 address. But the difference is this is auto-generated regardless of DHCP server or not. Every device will have a link local address. Now

00:20:15

this is where we get into a little of the technicalities of our IP addressing. The RFC has specified that these addresses will always begin with FE80. Now that is because the first 10 bits must be 1111111010. Now when I get into IPv6 addressing I needed a little hexadecimal review just because I'm so used to decimal and binary from IPv4. Moving into the hex world was a little tough. But the first thing you have to remember is that every

00:20:47

single one of these digits are represented by four binary bits, one, two, three, four. Now the way it works is very similar to decimal. You have every character in the, in the address has four bits. All zeros is really zero. 0001 is really one. 0010 is two. We all know this. This is, this is basic binary, and you can keep going with that all the way up to just nine, you know, that would be 1001 equals nine. Now this is where the hexadecimal gets a little

00:21:19

bit different because we also have up to 16 values. It's actually zero through 15. That's possible with four bits. So when we go to 1010 zero which would typically be 10, we then go to an A. 1011 ends up being B. We keep going, 10 or actually, hang on, 1100 would end up being C and so on. You have 1101 is D. 1110 is E. And then finally, all 1's is how we end up with the F. So when you see that the first 10 bits must be 1111 for the first bits, it means that we're going to have F as the first one. You can see the E because that's the second

00:22:09

set of four bits. Now you may be wondering well how did you get eight with only two bits? Well remember that the RFC specifies that the first 10 bits must be this. However, every single character in hex requires four bits to take place. So we have eight coming because

00:22:27

it's 10 and not specified here, but the others are going to be zero to make up that character because these link local addresses always begin with these first 10 bits and are followed with 54 bits of zero. So you can assume that every single one of these characters is going to take four bits and if you ever see two bits, you only need two more to make a character. So that's

00:22:48

where we get the eight from. And of course the zero bops in because every IPv6 address has four characters, four hexadecimal characters per octets separated by colon. So that's why we end up having that FE80. Technically speaking most of the time you'll see it written FE8 in the RFC standards, but zero is what you'll always have on your address because of the following 54 bits of zeros. So that's our first octet. All of these right here, first 64 bits is what we just talked about. Now the last 64 bit is where it gets a little bit weird. Let me clear this off here. The last 64 bits is the 48-bit MAC address from the host, whatever host this is being generated on followed by or I should say squished between FFFE or that is squeezed in the middle.

00:23:42

It's hard to say that because here's the idea. Let's say we've got host with this MAC address. Well that's 48 bits, but we need 64 to complete the 128-bit IP address. So what the last 64 bits will be is first four of the MAC address 0019, 0019, second D1, D1, and then for some reason the designers and the powers that be decided to squeeze FFFE right in the middle. So in every single link local address

00:24:13

you'll always see the MAC address with this kind of sandwiched between the two ends and then you can see the rest of the MAC address, 22, 22, DCF3, DCF3. So that will end up comprising the last 64 bits of that IP address that is only used for link local communication.

00:24:31

Now it doesn't have to be used, for instance, if you had other IP addresses that were being used to communicate outside. Those would be used but if you're speaking to somebody on the same link and you realize that you have a source address coming from that link then you can use your link local address to communicate with them.

00:24:49

Now let's move into the second debated IP address type, the unique-local or site-local addresses. I think I mentioned this backwards before and corrected myself. Unique-local is the new name, RFC 4193. Site local is the old name that was an RFC 3513. So we're supposed to be calling these unique-local addresses which I actually like the old name better, site-local, because it really describes what they do. They are used within enterprise networks to identify the

00:25:20

boundary of their networks. So you can expect that these addresses will be relatable to the private addresses of IPv4, for the 10 range 192.168, all that. This is kind of the same thing. Now as it is specified in the RFC, they will use the following format.

00:25:40

You can see that the first seven bits must be all 1's for the first one, that's our F. You can see, you can see C as the second one and then 00. But the RFC specifies that only those seven bits must be that way. So that's why we have 11, so there's four bits there, five, six, seven. The RFC mentions that this last bit right here, the one with the L, is going to be up to you.

00:26:10

But it's kind of funny because they say all locally assigned addresses, meaning assigned by you, you should set the L to 1. So our real first eight bits are typically going to be 11111101. Zero is currently reside, reserved for future use by setting the L to zero. So

00:26:33

currently the site addresses will all begin with FD00::8 because even though the RFC says only this first seven bits have to be set, they say, oh, yeah, by the way, that last little L bit on the end should be set to 1 which means it's locally assigned by an administrator thus making all enterprise addresses or all private, I guess you could say, IPv6 address starting with FD00/8. Now it seems funny when you look at something like that to be like, oh, no, you're locking it down. There is not enough

00:27:06

private IP addresses. But remember, we've got seven full octets of four hexadecimals each that, I mean you're, that's a gazillion different Ip addresses that you could use within your organization and likewise that's why they split up these separate sections.

00:27:23

You have 40 bits which represent the global ID. That's intended to be your company like everybody in your company will have the same 40 bits starting their IP address or I should say following the FD00. The next 16 bits here are going to be the subnet ID because you're going to have VLANs, you're going to have subnets within your company's WAN links and so on. So this will identify the specific subnets.

00:27:48

And then finally the last 64 bits just as we saw with the link local address will be the interface ID, it will be spliced into a MAC address style format like the other one was or you could come up with your own interface ID depending on the host that you're working with. It could be a DCHP pool.

00:28:07

There is the DHCPv6, whatever, whatever way you're assigning interface IDs that is what this one will be and that will result in a global unique at least within your your enterprise IPv6 address. So we've seen the unique-local addresses or site-local. We've

00:28:25

seen the link local. Next up is the global, not so local addresses. These are going to be the new pool of IP addresses that will build the IPv6 Internet. As of right now the only thing the standard will say is that they have to have their first three bits, high level three bits set to 001. And what that comes out to be is 2000 or 2 something ::3. You can just see the, the first three bits are what make that number two show up, but everything else is fair game. Now you can see the global running prefix.

00:29:00

This address is divided into three major sections. The global routing prefix is 48 bits or less. They could be, could be smaller, could be larger. The subnet ID is going to be comprised of whatever bits are left over after you have this global routing prefix. Here's the idea that the powers that be have decided

00:29:20

on for the Internet addresses. We've got this pool starting with 2xxx. You know, anything after that is fair game. So we can go ahead and assign, you know, maybe 2000:0, you know, da da da da da, some 40, you know, up to 48 bits right here for this global routing. And that'll go to Asia and 2, you know, da da da da da down the line, that will go to Egypt. Where did that

00:29:44

come from? Egypt. How about like Australia or Egypt. Why not? Or these will go to Iran. These will go to Canada, you know. You get the idea. They're going to be chopping these up into giganto blocks and assigning them to the nations which they already have done. Many assignments have already been made. You can look

00:30:01

at the RFC and they'll show you, you know, who's got what blocks. All these different unions have been assigned different blocks. But the primary addresses expected to comprise the IPv6 Internet are these. The ones that are coming from 2001::/16 subnet, that is the IA and A's block.

00:30:23

That is their range that they've chosen to use and, and start assigning. So you're going to see ISPs everywhere start getting blocks of those. As a matter of fact you probably are able to go and apply for your own block right now. Who knows? Maybe you'll be one of the early comers to the IPv6 address space and like 20 years from now you'll be looking back saying, I'm glad I got that block. Who would have known we'd run out, you know.

00:30:47

Who knows? But that's, that's how they splice up all of those different global addresses and those will be public on the Internet. There is the idea behind the new IPv6 addressing. Pretty different, huh? There's going to be a huge learning curve when we really started seeing this move all way down to the desktops because remember this not only affects us as CISCO people but also affects everybody dealing with operating systems. Microsoft is going to use this. Linux is going to use this.

00:31:17

Apple computers are all going to use this. So everybody is going to have to learn at least that are in the IT field. They're going to have to learn how IPv6 addresses work. So hopefully, I answered the question, will we need to upgrade? Yes, we will and the upgrade has already begun. As a matter of fact, oh, I just thought of this.

00:31:37

Great, great thing I want to show you. If you go to Google and search for a BGP Looking Glass, that will let you see the routing table of the Internet. And this first link right here is just kind of, if you go there, it gives you a massive list of all kinds of websites that lets you look at Internet routing tables. And

00:31:59

see the one I'm looking for is actually in Hawaii. Where did they go? LavaNet. That's it. LavaNet Looking Glass. If you go to the LavaNet Looking Glass and say, I would like, they actually have, if you look right here, the LavaNet IPv6 Looking Glass. This shows the current routing table of

00:32:21

the Internet 2, the new Internet that is existing. It says, what would you like to see? You can actually filter it. I'll just hit submit. It will display the whole IP routing table. Oh, wait a sec. That's not what I want to see. That's a show version. Give me the prefix-list.

00:32:37

That's what I want to see. Submit. This will be the, my goodness. Oh, show IP BGP. That's what I want. There we go. I'm going to hit submit. This is going to show me the, there we go, the whole Internet routing table right now that is currently running the Internet 2. If you look, all the prefixes start with 2001 just like I was saying. And look at this. I'm going to scroll. These are all Internet locations on the Internet 2. And you know, I'm scrolling but the scroll bar is getting smaller and smaller over here on the right. This is just how many

00:33:15

networks are already existing on the Internet 2. Five we go. This, this is to show you that the Internet 2 exists. It is currently being built primarily in areas outside the United States. Will we need to upgrade to IPv6? Yes. It's already happening. We then saw the IPv6 address format, the eight octets of hexadecimal, 128-bit address. The headers are simpler and we saw the three different address types that exists, link local, unique-local, and the global addresses.

IPv6: Configuring, Routing, and Interoperating

Certification: Some Last Words for Test Takers

Advanced TCP/IP: Working with Binary

Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 1

Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 2

Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 3

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16 hrs 32 videos

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Jeremy Cioara
Nugget trainer since 2003