00:00:00 - With 2.0 Project Planning behind us, we move into the next element
00:00:05 - of the CompTIA exam, which is 3.0 Project Execution and Delivery.
00:00:10 - And in real life, we move out of project planning into project
00:00:16 - execution and delivery. We are moving from planning into delivering
00:00:21 - the project. We're going to bring our team on and we're going
00:00:24 - to complete the deliverables. We're going to do all of the work
00:00:27 - identified in the WBS.
00:00:31 - This section of the exam, 3.0 Project Execution and Delivery
00:00:36 - will constitute 23%
00:00:39 - of your total grade.
00:00:41 - 3.0 Project Execution has four elements we're going to discuss:
00:00:45 - 3.1 Human Resource Management; 3.2 Project Kickoff, and that's
00:00:51 - going to be the focus of this Nugget; and then in succeeding
00:00:55 - Nuggets, we'll talk about 3.3 Project Governance and 3.4 Project
00:01:00 - Delivery Management. So to move into this Nugget 3.1 Human Resource
00:01:06 - Management or the full definition from the CompTIA is 3.1 coordinate
00:01:12 - human resources to maximize performance, and 3.2 Project Kickoff,
00:01:18 - or the full definition is 3.2 Explain the importance of a project
00:01:23 - kickoff meeting and outline the common activities performed during
00:01:27 - this meeting, i.e. let's get the project rolling. Let's get the
00:01:32 - team together and let's kick off the project and start completing
00:01:37 - the deliverables, start working on the WBS.
00:01:42 - This Nugget is focused exclusively on human resources and getting
00:01:48 - those human resources focused on project delivery.
00:01:52 - Topics we're going to discuss in this Nugget are forming a team.
00:01:57 - We'll discuss in just a moment that forming a project team is
00:02:00 - substantially different than adding to working with an existing
00:02:05 - operational team. We're going to focus on monitoring the team,
00:02:10 - the HR performance aspects, making sure our team members are
00:02:14 - performing optimally. We'll discuss monitoring project performance
00:02:19 - in a later Nugget in this series. As I said, this Nugget is focused
00:02:23 - on the human resource aspect. And as we discussed in Planning,
00:02:28 - there is a strong reliance on human resources in IT projects
00:02:33 - because a lot of our project delivery is going to be delivered
00:02:36 - by focused on the motivation and performance of our team. To
00:02:41 - ensure our team is fully ready to perform on our project, we're
00:02:45 - going to address specific training requirements for the team,
00:02:48 - and because we're dealing with human resources, we're going to
00:02:52 - have to deal with conflicts.
00:02:55 - It would be nice if I could give you a magic formula and say
00:02:59 - if you apply this magic formula during project kickoff, all team
00:03:04 - conflicts, all human resource conflicts are going to go away.
00:03:08 - Well, I don't believe that's possible. Our project is composed
00:03:13 - of humans. Humans have their own idiosyncrasies, and as soon
00:03:18 - as we're dealing with humans and putting them together, we're
00:03:21 - likely to have conflicts. So as effective IT project managers,
00:03:26 - we need to have good effective conflict management processes
00:03:29 - in hand, and we'll discuss that in this Nugget. And finally,
00:03:34 - we'll kick of the project and we'll make the project a go. We'll
00:03:38 - orient the team. We'll do the razzle-dazzle. We'll get them excited
00:03:43 - and we will get the project started. But first, let's talk about
00:03:48 - the aspects of what's required to form an effective project team.
00:03:53 - Forming a team or specifically forming a project team has some
00:03:58 - unique characteristics that we're not going to have to deal with
00:04:01 - operational teams. The key difference with a project team is
00:04:05 - the same as the key characteristic of a project itself, is it's
00:04:10 - temporary. Therefore, the team members that we are going to pull
00:04:16 - together may have never worked together before, may not even
00:04:22 - know each other. Elements of the project team, i.e. some of the
00:04:26 - project team members may have worked together, and other elements
00:04:30 - of the project team may have never worked together, versus an
00:04:34 - operational team where they've been working together
00:04:39 - forever. Sure, operational team members will change periodically.
00:04:48 - You'll have new team members come. You'll have new hires. You'll
00:04:51 - have resignations. You'll have promotions. But the core team
00:04:55 - has been working together forever. The roles,
00:04:59 - the responsibilities,
00:05:01 - the norms,
00:05:05 - the for operational teams are typically well-developed,
00:05:10 - and yes, as an operational manager, we need to be aware of how
00:05:14 - to break new people into the operational teams. But the focus
00:05:18 - of this Nugget is not on operational teams; the focus of this
00:05:21 - Nugget is on project teams. And again, I believe there are some
00:05:26 - very specific characteristics that we as project managers need
00:05:30 - to be aware of for project teams because it's temporary, never
00:05:35 - work together
00:05:38 - at all, or some teams
00:05:43 - have some knowledge
00:05:48 - of each other. They have new roles and responsibilities. There
00:05:53 - is a new mandate.
00:05:57 - Remember, projects are temporary. Projects are also unique. So
00:06:01 - therefore, the work our project teams are going to work on is
00:06:05 - again going to be new. There is going to be learning. There is
00:06:08 - going to be a lot of unique characteristics that we as project
00:06:11 - managers need to be aware of to effectively form our project
00:06:15 - team. And we'll discuss a lot of that in just a moment in this
00:06:19 - Nugget when we're going to discuss building a comprehensive team
00:06:22 - or a cohesive team. But before we go there, another key characteristic
00:06:27 - I want to throw at you that as project managers we need to be
00:06:31 - aware of is often there are multiple on-ramps and off-ramps as
00:06:36 - we focus on forming our project team. We have our project phases.
00:06:41 - We have analysis. We have design.
00:06:45 - We have development and so on. We will on-ramp the team for analysis,
00:06:52 - and these will be senior
00:06:55 - resources. At the end of analysis, we may off-ramp some of those
00:07:01 - senior resources. We will keep a few on for continuity, and then
00:07:05 - we will on-ramp the designers.
00:07:10 - At the end of design, we'll off-ramp some of the designers. We
00:07:15 - may off-ramp another segment of our senior resources, and then
00:07:19 - as we move into development, we will on-ramp the developers
00:07:26 - and so on. Every time we on-ramp and off-ramp, we need to be
00:07:31 - aware of we're adding two which change in the dynamics of.
00:07:37 - We're physically altering the composition.
00:07:42 - We're intellectually altering the composition.
00:07:46 - We're changing the norms. We're changing the roles and responsibilities.
00:07:50 - We need to spend appropriate time during each of these on-ramps
00:07:55 - and off-ramps to again build that cohesive team.
00:08:00 - So let's focus now on what building that cohesive team really
00:08:03 - means. So our focus as project managers is building a team, or
00:08:08 - as I said, building a cohesive team.
00:08:12 - I'm going to discuss Dr. Bruce Tuckman's model for building a
00:08:18 - cohesive team. There are other models for building a cohesive
00:08:22 - team, but my experience is the Tuckman model works very well
00:08:26 - for me. And my experience is the Tuckman model seems to be the
00:08:30 - most discussed in general writings on project management and
00:08:35 - team management processes. You're probably aware of the Tuckman
00:08:39 - model. The Tuckman model says all teams
00:08:46 - will go through these five stages: forming, storming, norming,
00:08:53 - performing, and I want to say adjourning.
00:08:59 - Tuckman says all teams must go through these five stages. And
00:09:05 - as a project manager, it's in our best interest to get our team
00:09:09 - to the performing stage as quickly as possible because we will
00:09:13 - spend significant time and effort
00:09:17 - working through the forming, the storming, the norming stages,
00:09:21 - where not all work. Not every hour of the day is going to be
00:09:26 - focused on completing our WBS elements, completing our project
00:09:29 - deliverables. But when we get into the performing stage, the
00:09:33 - focus is on completing the project deliverables. So let's talk
00:09:38 - about what forming is and what influence we as project managers
00:09:42 - can have on forming. Forming is really what we're going to do
00:09:47 - with the project kickoff we're going to discuss at the tail end
00:09:50 - of this Nugget. Forming is the initial stage of bringing the
00:09:54 - team together. All the team is brought together. They're introduced
00:09:58 - to each other. We're going to give them their objectives for
00:10:01 - the project, and we're going to overview the project objectives.
00:10:06 - This is very much a first date approach. We're going to take
00:10:12 - a bunch of strangers together and we're going to bring them into
00:10:16 - the same room. We're going to introduce them to each other. We're
00:10:19 - going to give them the norms for which the project is going to
00:10:22 - operate. And we're going to try to help them work through the
00:10:27 - forming with appropriate team-building activities, with appropriate
00:10:31 - breaking the ice activities, and get them to move to the next
00:10:36 - stage. And our job as a project manager is to make storming as
00:10:41 - short as possible.
00:10:47 - As soon as the team leaves that kickoff,
00:10:51 - I would like to suggest the forming should be done and probably
00:10:56 - the storming is going to happen. So what happens in storming?
00:11:00 - This is where the team is going to go back and say, "Okay. I
00:11:04 - remember Steve stood up in project kickoff and said, I need to
00:11:08 - do this and I'm going to report to this person. Is that true
00:11:13 - or have I forgotten?" So there is going to be some internal storming
00:11:17 - where each individual team member is going to simply say, "Hmm,
00:11:20 - do I really understand what's required of me? Do I like what's
00:11:24 - required of me? Am I going to be able to do what's required of
00:11:28 - me?" internal storming. And there is going to be the external
00:11:31 - storming. "You know, I didn't really like the look of that person
00:11:35 - that was sitting beside me," or even worse, "I didn't really
00:11:38 - like the smell of that person sitting beside me. Maybe they have
00:11:42 - some personal hygiene issues." But in the storming stage, literally,
00:11:46 - when you take them back to their desks and begin to work on the
00:11:49 - project, there are going to be conflicts, and we're going to
00:11:52 - discuss conflicts again later in this Nugget. So again, it's
00:11:56 - our job as a project manager to help work through the storming
00:12:01 - as quickly as possible and to get through all of those issues,
00:12:05 - get people comfortable with their roles in the project, and get
00:12:09 - the project team members comfortable with each other.
00:12:14 - As we work through storming, we're going to move into norming.
00:12:17 - Things are now beginning to calm down. The team members are going
00:12:21 - to get to know each other. They are going to get comfortable
00:12:23 - with their position on their team. They're going to get comfortable
00:12:26 - with their roles and responsibilities, their reporting relationships,
00:12:29 - and what's expected of them. Again, we want to keep storming
00:12:34 - as short as possible, but we recognize that there has to be that
00:12:38 - degree of comfort
00:12:41 - through the norming process where people begin to associate with
00:12:46 - the project as opposed to individuals.
00:12:50 - As project managers, we have the most ability to influence
00:12:57 - in the storming, in the forming.
00:13:00 - We can influence in the norming indirectly by encouraging good
00:13:06 - behavior and correcting bad behavior, but norming is really the
00:13:11 - personal adaptation of your team members into the project environment.
00:13:17 - And obviously, we want to move them into the performing as quickly
00:13:21 - as possible, where the project operates as a well-oiled machine.
00:13:26 - In performing,
00:13:28 - we're still going to have to deal with conflict. We're going
00:13:30 - to have new issues going to come up. We're going to have to deal
00:13:33 - with performance concerns and so on and so on. But as we move
00:13:38 - through these stages, keep in mind that our focus is to get into
00:13:42 - performing. And then of course, we have determination or ramping
00:13:47 - down. These are the on-ramps
00:13:50 - or, sorry. More appropriately, these are the off-ramps for our
00:13:53 - project, and we need to find ways to transition
00:13:58 - the knowledge
00:14:02 - from the team members leaving the project into remaining team
00:14:07 - members to keep us in the performing stage.
00:14:10 - Now, a couple of comments. I said in the beginning that all teams,
00:14:15 - according to Tuckman, must go through the building of a team,
00:14:20 - five stages, and I'd like to really a personal experience I had
00:14:24 - of watching a team try to skip many of the steps and go straight
00:14:31 - to the performing. I have taught in an MBA program, project management
00:14:36 - in an MBA program for many years. And for two or three years,
00:14:40 - I taught project management in what was called an executive MBA
00:14:44 - program, didn't follow the traditional semester life cycle, followed
00:14:48 - very much a compressed three or four or five intensive weekends,
00:14:55 - and really tried to compress the academic schedule to suit individuals
00:15:02 - who were working full-time. In the e-MBA program, students were
00:15:08 - enrolled into teams really at day zero of their e-MBA program,
00:15:11 - and they stayed in these teams through most of their courses.
00:15:14 - They literally
00:15:16 - went through courses and waves, and the teams rolled through
00:15:23 - the waves. So that was the environment I went into. I was one
00:15:26 - of the courses in the waves. But I had a complication thrown
00:15:33 - at me, or the teams had a complication thrown at
00:15:42 - me. We had these well-established
00:15:46 - performing teams that were on their fifth, sixth course in the
00:15:51 - e-MBA program, but we had thrown into the student population
00:15:56 - for this particular course a significant number of traditional
00:16:00 - MBA programs who are working through the traditional semester
00:16:04 - program. Not to pat myself in the back, this was necessitated
00:16:09 - because we had to limit enrollment of my project management course
00:16:13 - in the traditional semester program. There were still a significant
00:16:16 - number of students who wanted to take the course. Academic management
00:16:22 - decided there was sufficient capacity at the e-MBA level to add
00:16:26 - additional students into my e-MBA class, so we took the established
00:16:31 - teams and injected
00:16:35 - full-time semester students into the course,
00:16:40 - and we injected these full-time semester students into existing
00:16:46 - teams. So we had a functional performing team of
00:16:54 - e-MBAs who had already been through the forming, storming, norming
00:16:57 - process and were in performing, and we added two traditional
00:17:05 - students. What happened, in spite the fact that these were MBA
00:17:11 - students and they had probably already been through the whole
00:17:14 - HR dynamics and probably already understood the Tuckman model,
00:17:19 - they chose to ignore the fact that they had additional team members
00:17:23 - joining, ignored the fact that they need to go through some form
00:17:28 - of forming, storming, and norming, assumed that these two new
00:17:34 - traditional students would immediately work into their performing
00:17:37 - stage, and started,
00:17:40 - and things went downhill from there. We kicked off the teams,
00:17:44 - we had our first day-long session, and we disappeared and we
00:17:49 - didn't see each other for another week, let's say. When I came
00:17:52 - back in to start the next class a week later, you could see some
00:17:57 - very unhappy teams scattered around the classroom. You could
00:18:01 - see a group huddled around working closely together, and you
00:18:05 - could see the traditional students on the fringe trying to break
00:18:10 - into the group. And as I wandered around trying to inquire what
00:18:14 - was going on, you heard things like, "Why didn't you show up
00:18:19 - at the meeting last night?"
00:18:21 - accusingly at the two traditional students. The two traditional
00:18:26 - students said, "What meeting?"
00:18:29 - The e-MBA team said, "We always get together at seven o'clock
00:18:33 - before a class to discuss our workload, to discuss our plans."
00:18:40 - That was part of the forming. They should have introduced the
00:18:44 - two traditional students to their process. "We get together at
00:18:49 - seven PM every night before a classroom." They didn't know that.
00:18:55 - They didn't form but they certainly were doing a good job on
00:18:58 - storming. There was a lot of animosity in the room.
00:19:05 - They should have recognized that they had missed a stage. They
00:19:09 - didn't. These e-MBA'ers
00:19:13 - still assumed they were in the performing stage, tended to shut
00:19:17 - these guys out. As I said, there were core groups huddled around
00:19:20 - workshopping together, and the traditional students were on the
00:19:24 - fringe looking in. They never formed. They were significantly
00:19:28 - storming, and as a matter of fact, as we worked through the entire
00:19:32 - course, some of the teams did integrate well, so some of the
00:19:37 - teams did take the time to form and storm and norm, and did get
00:19:42 - to the performing stage before the course was over. But a couple
00:19:45 - of the poor teams never did make it past the storming stage.
00:19:50 - They chose to ignore or they simply didn't appreciate or understand
00:19:56 - the importance of working through the team-building dynamics.
00:20:01 - And I bring this to your attention again because we're going
00:20:05 - to have on-ramps
00:20:07 - and we're going to have off-ramps
00:20:11 - throughout most IT projects.
00:20:15 - Don't assume
00:20:17 - that the team will continue to operate in performing. Spend the
00:20:22 - appropriate amount of time upfront. You, the project manager,
00:20:26 - needs to ensure that the forming and the storming takes place
00:20:31 - as quickly as possible. This is where we have the most ability
00:20:34 - to influence our teams and help the new on-ramp team members
00:20:40 - move into the performing appropriately, and that we're taking
00:20:44 - the time to appropriately off-ramp for the knowledge transition
00:20:48 - and keep the team in the performing stage.
00:20:53 - As project managers, it's our job to monitor the performance,
00:20:56 - and it's also our job, as I said, to help move our team through
00:21:01 - the forming, the storming, the norming, the performing, and to
00:21:05 - keep them in the performing. And a lot of that is through the
00:21:08 - monitoring of performance. The first step is to define the expectations
00:21:14 - of the individual
00:21:18 - and to define to the individual the expectations of the project.
00:21:24 - And it's important that we, the project managers, know what the
00:21:28 - individual's expectations are, that they plan to learn to be
00:21:33 - a Java programmer.
00:21:36 - We also need to outline our project's expectations that says,
00:21:39 - "I understand you want to be a Java programmer, but I brought
00:21:44 - you on to this project primarily because you are a corn script
00:21:49 - guru, and I need your expertise as a corn script guru to help
00:21:56 - me complete my project deliverables, but I also recognize that
00:21:59 - you want to become a Java coder, and I will find some project
00:22:05 - tasks that are Java-focused, and I will help you with training
00:22:09 - on your Java expectations." So we need to define the expectations
00:22:14 - and we need to create the plan. "It's going to be primarily corn
00:22:18 - but I will find some Java and I will find some training opportunities
00:22:24 - for you." This
00:22:26 - is really the type of things that we as project managers are
00:22:29 - going to work through in the forming
00:22:32 - and, to an extent, the storming
00:22:36 - because when we've laid out those project expectations and we
00:22:40 - told them that they are going to be a corn script programmer
00:22:44 - and their expectation was to be Java, there is going to be some
00:22:48 - storming. But hopefully, with the plan and laying out the plan,
00:22:54 - we can move us through the storming as quickly as possible and
00:22:58 - again, get that person into the norming where they're going to
00:23:01 - become more comfortable. And again, I would suggest norming is
00:23:05 - where specific issues and resolutions of point problems are going
00:23:12 - to be dealt with and resolved. "I'm not sure what my roles and
00:23:16 - responsibilities are. I'm not sure what my reporting requirements
00:23:20 - are going to be. I'm not sure what the quality expectations of
00:23:23 - this project are. I'm not sure we're going to identify the issues."
00:23:28 - We're going to help the team members work through the resolutions,
00:23:30 - and that's going to help them move through the norming process
00:23:35 - as quickly as possible and get them into the performing.
00:23:40 - And in performing, we as project managers need to recognize performance.
00:23:47 - We need to have rewards.
00:23:50 - We need to have recognition programs.
00:23:54 - And we need to have rewards and recognitions at the team level
00:23:58 - and at the individual level.
00:24:03 - And we need to have effective and equitable reward and recognition
00:24:09 - programs at both the team and the individual level to keep our
00:24:14 - team in the performing stage. If you see someone doing something
00:24:18 - good, recognize it. And sometimes, recognizing it is as simple
00:24:23 - as a pat on the back or a heartfelt thank you. It doesn't have
00:24:29 - to be cash. It doesn't have to be gift certificates to go out
00:24:33 - and buy an unusual amount of coffee or treats, but find ways
00:24:40 - to recognize performance at the team and the individual level.
00:24:44 - Now, having said it doesn't have to be cash, I'm also a firm
00:24:48 - believer that some small sprinkling of cash and when I say "small
00:24:53 - sprinkling of cash," I'm not saying in terms of personal bonuses,
00:24:57 - but I am personally a fan of small sprinklings of cash to spring
00:25:01 - for things like team lunches and team recognition events. Don't
00:25:07 - have to be big, don't have to be elaborate, but we need to have
00:25:10 - some form of recognition to keep the team in the performing stage,
00:25:15 - and I absolutely need to also address inadequate performance
00:25:20 - to either move them to a journey,
00:25:24 - and I hope we never have to go to that stage. But if we have
00:25:27 - inadequate performance in place with a member of our project,
00:25:33 - we need to deal with it head on.
00:25:36 - We need to deal with it immediately.
00:25:41 - And we need to create
00:25:44 - a specific plan to deal with any inadequate performance issues
00:25:49 - before they become serious. Inadequate performance issues are
00:25:53 - going to eat away at your project. They are going to eat away
00:25:56 - at your project because the inadequate performers are not going
00:25:59 - to be completing their tasks on schedules,
00:26:02 - which is going to drag down your schedule, going to drag down
00:26:06 - your budget, and are going to result in non-project performance.
00:26:10 - And more times than not, if you have one or two team members
00:26:14 - who have inadequate performance issues, it's going to impact
00:26:19 - the motivation of your other project team members. "Well, why
00:26:23 - is he getting away with not doing that while I'm having to do
00:26:26 - all of this extra work because he or she isn't doing their job?"
00:26:31 - So we need, as project managers, to address the inadequate performance
00:26:36 - issues head on, immediately as possible, move them from inadequate
00:26:41 - into performance
00:26:42 - and reward and recognize that. Now, the next step is let's get
00:26:49 - the appropriate training in place to address inadequate performance
00:26:54 - issues, to focus on the plans that we had in place, to monitor
00:26:59 - and perform and manage the performance of our team. Training
00:27:03 - is often a key component to, again, moving our team into that
00:27:07 - performing stage.
00:27:10 - As we work through project kickoff and as we work through project
00:27:14 - performance, we as project managers need to ensure that we have
00:27:18 - appropriate training plans in place. We may have project-specific
00:27:23 - training. There may be skills, there may be technologies, there
00:27:26 - may be work environment skills that our project requires.
00:27:32 - We as project managers need to ensure
00:27:36 - it's in place,
00:27:40 - it's delivered, and it's available
00:27:47 - to all team members
00:27:51 - that need
00:27:54 - it. As we work through projects, we will often encounter team
00:27:59 - members request for training that are not project-specific that
00:28:03 - are career training, and maybe we could take the Java example
00:28:08 - as an example of career training. Our developer is a corn guru
00:28:14 - but wants to become a Java guru. Do I need it for my project?
00:28:19 - No. Actually, I don't want them to be a Java guru for my project.
00:28:24 - I want them to be a corn guru or continue to be a corn guru.
00:28:28 - But I have to recognize that this individual has a career aspiration
00:28:33 - to move into Java, and it's really in my best interest to facilitate
00:28:38 - that as much as possible
00:28:42 - within the confines
00:28:48 - of my project.
00:28:52 - And when I say "within the confines of my project," I don't mean
00:28:56 - try to bury the career training and make it invisible to the
00:29:00 - organization and absorb it into my project. When I say it's in
00:29:04 - my best interest to accommodate my team members' career trainings
00:29:09 - within the confines of my project, i.e. if I can
00:29:15 - without impacting the project,
00:29:20 - then it's in my best interest to do it. And as I said to this
00:29:23 - Java person, "Yes, I think I can find some Java code for you
00:29:27 - to write, and yes, I will get Sally, who is my Java guru, to
00:29:33 - sit with you and support you and help you work through your Java
00:29:37 - code." If I can do that without impacting my project, then it's
00:29:41 - in my project's best interest to support their career
00:29:45 - training requirements because I will have a more motivated employee.
00:29:50 - But if I can't do it within the confines of my project, I don't
00:29:54 - have the Java expertise, or I don't have the freedom of schedule
00:29:59 - to let this person do a little dabbling and training, then I
00:30:02 - need to have that sincere and honest discussion with that team
00:30:06 - member that says, "I recognize you want to be a Java resource.
00:30:11 - You've been resourced in my project to be a corn guru. I need
00:30:15 - you to be a corn guru." I may have to get into some little flattery.
00:30:19 - I may have to appeal to their ego and say, "You are the person
00:30:26 - that's going to make this project a success." Build them up.
00:30:29 - Get them committed to being a corn guru, and give them your commitment
00:30:35 - that says, "I can't give you Java training on this course, but
00:30:40 - I will personally go to senior management, tell senior management
00:30:45 - what a good job you're going to do for me on this project, and
00:30:48 - I will reiterate that to senior management at the end of the
00:30:51 - project. You did a terrific job on this project. This project
00:30:54 - is a success for this. And our organization owes it to you to
00:31:00 - give you the Java training that you require as soon as the project
00:31:05 - is concluded.
00:31:07 - Our focus has to be on project training, but we need to support
00:31:11 - career training as possible within the confines of our project.
00:31:15 - And it doesn't matter whether it's skills training, whether it's
00:31:19 - technical training, whether it is HR training, whether it is
00:31:25 - interpersonal communications training. Whatever training is required
00:31:30 - for our project, we have to ensure it's in place and delivered.
00:31:35 - We have to support as much career training as possible and use
00:31:39 - that as a motivator to help move our project forward. And
00:31:45 - the final aspect we need to discuss in this Nugget is conflict
00:31:49 - management. We are going to have conflict management throughout
00:31:52 - our project. We are going to have conflicts in the forming, definitely
00:31:56 - in the storming, some in the norming, and we are going to have
00:32:02 - conflicts even in the performing stage. As project managers,
00:32:06 - we need to resolve
00:32:10 - conflicts as soon as possible.
00:32:15 - Bottom line, as project managers, as soon as we recognize a conflict,
00:32:18 - we need to get it resolved as soon as possible or our project
00:32:22 - performance is going to deteriorate. Our team is going to move
00:32:25 - out of their performing stage and potentially go way back to
00:32:28 - the storming stage. CompTIA has identified three sources of conflict
00:32:34 - specifically relevant for IT projects.
00:32:39 - So you can almost expect to have some questions on your exam
00:32:43 - specifically related to these three sources of conflicts: Competing
00:32:48 - resource demands. IT resources are often in scarce demand in
00:32:53 - every organization. Although your team member may be assigned
00:32:57 - to your project full-time,
00:33:00 - they are going to get conflicting resource demands. They are
00:33:03 - going to get previous projects. They're going to get other managers
00:33:06 - saying, "Tom, Sally, George, could you just come and help me
00:33:11 - with this? You are the guru. I need you to help me get this done."
00:33:15 - It's going to cause conflict as your team member wants to focus
00:33:18 - on project activities but they are getting demands from other
00:33:22 - senior managers in your organization to take time away from your
00:33:25 - project to work on their needs.
00:33:29 - My experience is IT people are very opinionated, and IT people
00:33:36 - often believe that their way is the best way, so you are going
00:33:40 - to often get conflicts within your team with different expert
00:33:44 - opinions. "My way is the right way." "No, my way is the right
00:33:49 - way." And chances are, both ways are the right ways, so again,
00:33:54 - as project managers, we need to resolve those conflicts as quickly
00:33:58 - as possible, and again, my experience is the people who work
00:34:03 - in IT, and I'm one of those people who work in IT, have
00:34:07 - unique personal characteristics. And you may have a IT person
00:34:13 - who has the proverbial desk six inches high with paper, let's
00:34:18 - call them a slob, working beside the other IT person who is a
00:34:23 - neat freak, and they just irritate each other. Or you can have
00:34:27 - people who are early morning people. They like to be in before
00:34:30 - the sun rises. And by three o'clock in the afternoon, they're
00:34:33 - packing up their desks to go home, while the late risers who
00:34:37 - get up at 10 or 11 are just getting in to the flow of things
00:34:42 - so they are going to have conflicts. "Why is he leaving early?
00:34:44 - Why is he never here when I want it?" or, "They are never available
00:34:48 - for meetings," and so on. So again, according to CompTIA, these
00:34:52 - are the three main sources of conflict in IT projects. You're
00:34:56 - going to have millions of other sources of conflicts. You're
00:35:00 - going to have sources of conflicts between IT and the business.
00:35:03 - You're going to have sources of interpersonal conflicts between
00:35:06 - your IT members. You're going to have conflict with, you name
00:35:10 - it, you're going to have conflict because the wrong team won
00:35:14 - the hockey game the night before, I don't know.
00:35:17 - Be prepared for these specific sources of conflicts, but be prepared
00:35:21 - that conflicts can come at your project from every direction.
00:35:25 - As project managers, we need to manage the conflict as quickly
00:35:31 - as possible and resolve it. The six main techniques for conflict
00:35:35 - resolution that are discussed within the confines of CompTIA
00:35:39 - are smoothing, forcing, compromise, confronting,
00:35:44 - avoiding, and negotiating.
00:35:47 - Again, my expectation, you probably have a lot of knowledge of
00:35:49 - these particular managing conflict techniques already, but I
00:35:54 - do feel I need to spend just a few moments on them because again,
00:35:57 - my expectation, you will get questions on your CompTIA, will
00:36:01 - present a conflict situation and will say, "Which one of these
00:36:06 - conflict management techniques would be best applied?" So let's
00:36:10 - just spend a moment on this. Smoothing
00:36:13 - is really, it's a temporary way of resolving a conflict. You
00:36:18 - find a way to minimize. You find a way to basically work out
00:36:25 - a compromise
00:36:26 - amongst the team members. Because it is temporary, I would suggest
00:36:32 - smoothing is a lose-lose
00:36:34 - style of resolving a conflict. You are simply minimizing it.
00:36:40 - You're putting it away. You're trying to minimize the conflict
00:36:45 - areas but it's going to come back up and reemerge at some point
00:36:49 - in time, so it's not a well-recommended form of conflict management.
00:36:55 - Forcing. Basically, one of the conflict members will force, whether
00:37:02 - because they have power and authority, whether they have personal
00:37:05 - magnetism, whether they have expert opinion. But one of the conflict
00:37:11 - members will force a solution on to the other, and this is very
00:37:16 - much a win-lose
00:37:19 - type of conflict resolution. The person who does the forcing
00:37:24 - is going to feel very happy with themselves, feeling, "There.
00:37:27 - I won that one. Ha!" But the person who loses is not going to
00:37:32 - feel happy at all and therefore will potentially again re-energize
00:37:38 - his conflict at a later time. So again, forcing is not a highly
00:37:42 - recommended solution.
00:37:46 - Compromise is where the two members will work together and find
00:37:51 - a compromise. It's not smoothing. It's not ignoring it. It's
00:37:54 - not just putting it away and hoping it goes away. But they will
00:37:57 - actively make changes and find a compromise that is palatable
00:38:02 - to both. And a compromise can turn out to be a win-win
00:38:07 - if the two parties truly believe in the compromise and the two
00:38:11 - parties truly believe that the compromise solution satisfies
00:38:16 - their personal requirements as well as satisfies the project
00:38:19 - requirements. However, a compromise can also become a lose-lose
00:38:25 - where they've simply basically given in. "Yes, if you do that,
00:38:30 - I'll do that." It puts the conflict aside. We're allowed to continue.
00:38:35 - But again, if they don't believe in the compromise, it's going
00:38:39 - to come back and it's going to eventually re-energize itself
00:38:43 - and will have to be dealt with again. Confronting is problem-solving.
00:38:49 - This is truly the best way to resolve a conflict, and it should
00:38:55 - result in a win-win. Confronting is where you put all of the
00:39:00 - problems on the table and you literally workshop and find a good,
00:39:06 - fair, equitable solution.
00:39:09 - You put all of the issues, you put all of the problems on the
00:39:13 - table, and you work to find a good equitable solution. It's not
00:39:19 - a compromise. It's a good solution. It's agreed to by all parties,
00:39:24 - and it's believed in by all parties.
00:39:28 - It is probably the preferred form of conflict resolution. Avoiding,
00:39:35 - I think you can probably accept, is going to be a lose-lose.
00:39:41 - Avoiding simply says, "Well, there is a conflict. I don't want
00:39:45 - to deal with it so I'm going to ignore it. I'm going to avoid
00:39:47 - it." It continues to be a conflict and it doesn't get resolved
00:39:52 - and it impacts project performance. And finally, negotiating
00:39:57 - also should come to a win-win. The key difference between, let's
00:40:01 - say, a confronting and a negotiating is a confronting, the conflict
00:40:06 - members resolve it themselves, where with negotiating, you will
00:40:10 - bring in a third party to help resolve the conflict.
00:40:16 - Conflicts are inevitable. As project managers, it's our job to
00:40:21 - resolve them ASAP. For your exam, you need to recognize that
00:40:26 - there are three main sources of conflicts, but conflicts can
00:40:29 - come from everywhere. And for your exam, you need to understand
00:40:33 - that there are eight main ways of managing to deal with conflicts,
00:40:38 - and you need to understand what the impacts, whether it's a lose-lose
00:40:44 - or a win-win, and what the degree of effort, i.e. confronting
00:40:49 - should take less effort than a negotiating because negotiating,
00:40:52 - you need to bring in a third party, where confronting is the
00:40:56 - two conflicting members deal with it on their own. Be aware of
00:41:01 - the six methods of managing conflict and be aware of and expect
00:41:06 - to apply which methods are going to be most appropriate in a
00:41:11 - given project
00:41:13 - conflict scenario.
00:41:16 - And the final consideration for this Nugget is the formal project
00:41:20 - kickoff. It is a formal process. It needs to be scheduled
00:41:27 - and it needs to be mandatory.
00:41:32 - It should follow a given agenda. Here is a suggestion for agenda:
00:41:37 - welcome and introductions. Make everybody feel at home. Remember
00:41:40 - we're in the forming stage. Outline the roles and responsibilities
00:41:44 - for the project. Who is the project sponsor? Tell them what the
00:41:48 - project is all about. Outline the project schedule. Give them
00:41:52 - the project budget and tell them what the criteria for project
00:41:56 - completion is going to be. We're all about forming,
00:42:01 - making sure this team of unknown individuals or maybe known individuals
00:42:08 - or maybe sub-teams of known individuals who are being thrown
00:42:12 - together, put together for a project's success works through
00:42:17 - that forming process, has to be formal, has to be scheduled.
00:42:23 - I believe it needs to be mandatory and it is going to work us
00:42:27 - through that all-important first step of our team-building, which
00:42:31 - is forming, and as we've discussed already, needs to be repeated.
00:42:41 - As we off-ramp and on-ramp, as we go through the analysis to
00:42:45 - the design, and as we go through the design to the development,
00:42:50 - we need to repeat the project kickoff. We can't assume that the
00:42:56 - new team members are going to properly form, storm, norm, and
00:43:01 - move into perform. As project managers, we need to repeat the
00:43:07 - formal kickoff and we need to bring all of the team members the
00:43:12 - reoccurring, the existing team members as well as the new team
00:43:16 - members into each project kickoff session to form, to avoid having
00:43:23 - the scenario that my e-MBAs had with the traditional MBAs where
00:43:27 - they never formed but they sure did a bang-up job of storming.
00:43:35 - This Nugget was focused on human resource management and then
00:43:38 - taking all of our human resource management techniques and kicking
00:43:42 - off the project with a formal
00:43:46 - project kickoff session, and the recognition that the formal
00:43:50 - kickoff needs to be repeated
00:43:54 - as we on-ramp and
00:43:56 - off-ramp team members.
00:44:01 - The focus is forming a team, recognizing that project teams
00:44:07 - are different,
00:44:10 - that we're bringing together a group of unknown individuals
00:44:16 - and giving them a unique requirement to work on a project. As
00:44:20 - project managers, we need to recognize that forming a team, a
00:44:25 - project team
00:44:27 - has some very different characteristics than adding a new team
00:44:31 - member to an existing operational team. As project managers,
00:44:36 - we are going to monitor performance and we are going to take
00:44:38 - the actions we need to keep our team in the performing
00:44:45 - aspect of the Tuckman model.
00:44:49 - We are going to provide the appropriate training. We are going
00:44:52 - to recognize that conflict management is going to exist. In preparation
00:44:56 - for your CompTIA exam, recognize that there are three main sources
00:45:01 - of conflict,
00:45:03 - and there are six main techniques
00:45:08 - for dealing with conflicts. And as I said, we are going to formalize
00:45:12 - this with the project kickoff, and we're going to be prepared
00:45:16 - to repeat the project kickoff at each on-ramp and off-ramp to
00:45:21 - move our team through the forming, the storming,
00:45:28 - the norming,
00:45:30 - and keeping our team in the performing.
00:45:37 - This concludes our Nugget on Human Resource Management and Project
00:45:41 - Kickoff. I hope this module has been informative for you, and
00:45:44 - thank you very much for viewing.