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LPI Linux LPIC-1 101 and CompTIA Linux+

Find System Files and Place Files in the Correct Location

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LPIC1 & CompTIA Linux+ Intro

Hardware Settings

Boot the System

Change Runlevels and Reboot or Shutdown the System

Design Hard Disk Layout

Install a Boot Manager

Manage Shared Libraries

Debian Package Management

RPM & YUM Package Management

Work on the Command Line

Process Text Streams Using Filters

Perform Basic File Management

Use Streams, Pipes, and Redirects

Create, Monitor, and Kill Processes

Process Priorities

Search Text Files with Regular Expressions

Perform Basic File Editing Operations Using vi

Create Partitions and Filesystems

Maintain the Integrity of Filesystems

Control Mounting and Unmounting of Filesystems

Manage Disk Quotas

Manage File Permissions and Ownership

Create and Change Hard and Symbolic Links

Find System Files and Place Files in the Correct Location

00:00:00 - Welcome to nugget 104.7, the very last nugget
00:00:04 - in this first test of LPIC1 certification. We're going
00:00:08 - to talk about finding system files, and where they're located
00:00:12 - correctly on a system. Now, we're going to do a lot of talking
00:00:16 - about the FHS, or the File Hierarchy Standard, that basically
00:00:20 - determines where files are kept on a Linux system. We're going to learn
00:00:25 - how to find those files and commands, and then we're going to learn a handful
00:00:29 - of commands in order to help us with that. We're going to learn
00:00:32 - find and locate, which will help us find files, updatedb and
00:00:36 - then whereis, which and type, which talk, which will help us find
00:00:40 - commands that we're looking for, and where they're located, and
00:00:43 - lastly, we're going to talk about how to configure the updatedb
00:00:47 - configuration file. Not really much about how to configure it,
00:00:50 - but just how it works, we're going to take a peek at it. All right,
00:00:52 - so let's get to the command line and finish up our last nugget.
00:00:56 - The first thing we're going to learn about is the FHS, or the File Hierarchy
00:01:00 - Standard. Now, we're gonna go to the root directory of the drive
00:01:04 - here, do an ls -l, and we're going to look at all these
00:01:08 - different folders. Now, luckily, this is the last nugget of this
00:01:12 - first test, so we've been learning all these different folders,
00:01:16 - just because we've been using them. We've been going into these
00:01:19 - different folders to do different things, but the reason that
00:01:22 - they exist in a, in a standard formation is so that regardless
00:01:26 - of the operating system you're using, whether you're using Ubuntu,
00:01:29 - which is what we're actually using right here, or if you're
00:01:32 - using SUSE or Red Hat, that no matter where you are, there's
00:01:35 - a few standard places that files are kept. Now, again, the file
00:01:40 - arche, or the file hierarchy standard hasn't been updated since
00:01:45 - 2004, so modern distributions are starting to
00:01:48 - veer a little bit more away from that, like instead of the
00:01:51 - sys directory, they're using more things in the proc directory, but
00:01:55 - nonetheless, there is a standard, and it's helpful for us to know
00:01:59 - that standard, not only to pass the test, but also so that we
00:02:02 - can just have a feeling, no matter what system we're on, where
00:02:06 - to go to find things, all right. Now we're not going to go through
00:02:09 - every single
00:02:11 - folder that's mentioned in the FHS, we're just going to go through
00:02:14 - the few main ones that will be covered in the, in the LPIC exam, because
00:02:19 - it gets much more detailed than we'll need to, for this specific
00:02:22 - test, but you'll generally know, and a lot of this you already know,
00:02:25 - so this is kind of like a review, but you may want to go over
00:02:28 - this slowly so that you can really pay attention and make sure
00:02:31 - you get all the directories that I'm going to mention down
00:02:33 - pat. So let's go and look what each directory, what the
00:02:36 - standard for it is.
00:02:39 - So the first folder we're going to look at is just the root directory.
00:02:42 - Now, we know what that is, that's the root directory that every
00:02:44 - other directory forms out of, okay, so it's in red
00:02:47 - because it's special, it's the root directory. Then we're going
00:02:50 - to start with the bin directory. Now the bin directory is where
00:02:53 - command binaries are, are stored. Now these are binaries
00:02:57 - that would need to be used all the time, even in single
00:03:01 - user mode, so a lot of the real base binary files,
00:03:05 - or binary commands, are stored in the, in the bin directory. We're
00:03:08 - going to talk a little bit later about where some other ones are stored,
00:03:11 - but these the command binaries for the basic system. The next folder we're
00:03:14 - going talk about is the boot directory. A lot of times this
00:03:17 - is a separate partition. This is where the boot loader is stored.
00:03:20 - This is where you would keep your, your kernel, this is where you
00:03:23 - keep your GRUB configuration file, this is in the, the boot directory.
00:03:28 - The dev directory, or the devices directory, this is where
00:03:32 - devices are stored, a lot of times this is virtual, you know, pointing
00:03:35 - to like dev/sdb, we did that one with that hard drive we messed
00:03:40 - with a lot, but this is where devices are kept, dev/null, a lot
00:03:43 - of device things are stored in this folder, that's where
00:03:47 - a lot of your hard drives or your block devices or your, all
00:03:50 - of your devices are stored inside there. The etc
00:03:53 - directory, or it's sometimes, sometimes called et-see. This is
00:03:57 - where configuration files are stored. Now again, all of these can
00:04:00 - have folders within these folders, but this is the main base
00:04:04 - directory that your configuration files are stored.
00:04:07 - The home directory. This is the general place where user home
00:04:10 - directories are stored. This is, this is different than the,
00:04:13 - let's say, Mac OS 10, which is based on UNIX. They
00:04:16 - actually, instead of the home directory, use a users directory,
00:04:20 - but the FHS says that home directories are to be stored in the
00:04:24 - home directory, all right. The lib is for library files that executables
00:04:29 - need. We're actually going to look at, we'll see that, an example in one
00:04:32 - of our commands later on in this nugget, but this is where
00:04:35 - like these
00:04:37 - command binaries, a lot of them share libraries, so they
00:04:40 - share code, and that shared library code would be stored in
00:04:44 - this library file, all right. The proc directory, we looked at
00:04:48 - early, this is a virtual file system that's created on boot, and this
00:04:52 - is where we store and we can actually configure some, some information
00:04:56 - about the current running system, all right. The root directory,
00:05:00 - not to be confused with this root directory, but the root directory
00:05:04 - named r-o-o-t, this is the root users home directory.
00:05:08 - Now, why is it separate from users directories? Well, it's because
00:05:12 - what, this is often stored on a separate partition or a network
00:05:17 - hard drive, or a separate, you know, separate computer all together, and
00:05:21 - if there's something wrong with that, you still want root
00:05:23 - to be able to log in, so that, that, so that you can fix whatever
00:05:27 - is wrong, so it's good that, that root has their own home
00:05:31 - directory on the, on the system, all right. Unfortunately, this isn't it,
00:05:35 - there's another whole page.
00:05:37 - So here we go, sbin directory. These are system binaries.
00:05:41 - Now these are things that need to be run by the system, not
00:05:44 - so much by users, okay. This would be things like the mount command, and
00:05:48 - things like that, and it's stored in the sbin directory.
00:05:51 - Some people think about this as the super users binaries, but
00:05:54 - it's sbin for the system binaries.
00:05:57 - The tmp, or temp directory. This is where temporary files
00:06:01 - are, are stored, if you remember from a couple nuggets ago, this
00:06:05 - folder has the sticky bit set. Remember the sticky bit? Well, that's, this is the
00:06:09 - temp folder that we're talking about. The usr directory. Now,
00:06:13 - this is gen, it's often read-only, and this is often on a separate partition
00:06:18 - as well, but these are where user binaries, like if you install
00:06:22 - Open Office, or you install programs that users would
00:06:27 - need to use, or like games, they're often stored in usr/bin,
00:06:31 - or there's the usr/share directory, but this is the, the
00:06:35 - folder that users,
00:06:39 - not so much the root user, but users would use on a, on a regular basis.
00:06:43 - Again, this is often on a separate hard drive, or even a network
00:06:46 - drive as well.
00:06:48 - The var directory is for variable files, and by variable, I mean
00:06:52 - things that change often, like log files or the mails, the mail
00:06:56 - spool directories, things like that. This is where you'll find
00:06:59 - a lot of things that change often. This is often a fast drive.
00:07:03 - This is a drive or a partition that can fill up quickly, so that's
00:07:06 - another reason this is often on a separate partition, and
00:07:10 - then lastly, these two, I just kind of made these a little bit separate.
00:07:13 - The media is the mount place for removable media. This is especially in
00:07:17 - newer operating systems, because the m-n-t folder is kind of
00:07:22 - a legacy location for removable media, so it used to be m-n-t,
00:07:26 - and in fact, a couple nuggets ago, I actually used the m-n-t folder,
00:07:29 - it's not improper, it's still part of the FHS, but most new
00:07:33 - distributions will mount removable media in the media folder,
00:07:38 - right off the hard drive, and in a nutshell, that's the FHS.
00:07:42 - Basically, it's just telling you where you would normally find
00:07:45 - different files or commands on your system, regardless of what,
00:07:49 - what sort of Linux distribution you're using. It's a standard
00:07:52 - that most of them try to stick to pretty well.
00:07:55 - So now you've, know, you know how to generally look for files, and you
00:07:58 - generally would know where to find things, like if you were looking
00:08:01 - for configurations files, you might go to the etc directory,
00:08:05 - and type ls, and say, oh, what if I was looking for the emacs
00:08:10 - configuration file, and you
00:08:13 - go into the emacs folder, and maybe it's in there, well, I don't know,
00:08:17 - is it in here? Oh, there is it, a dictionaries file, and it's not the greatest way
00:08:22 - to find things, but you generally know where to go, like var/log is going
00:08:27 - to contain all kinds of log files, but there's some tools to
00:08:30 - help you find things. Let's go back to our home directory here,
00:08:33 - see we're in the home/spowers folder, and there's two tools
00:08:37 - I want to show you, one is called find, and one is called locate. Now,
00:08:42 - in English, they mean pretty much similar things, but as commands
00:08:46 - they're vastly different, okay. First of all, find is much slower,
00:08:52 - but more, I don't want to say accurate, but what find does, is it finds
00:08:56 - in real time; it searches through the hierarchy of your, your
00:08:59 - hard drive in real time. So you tell it where you want to start
00:09:03 - searching, so we would say, like, if you want to start searching
00:09:06 - from the root directory, and we'll look for a file with the name, so we're
00:09:12 - going to use the name flag, of, that contains mail, all right.
00:09:20 - So we're searching for something named mail.
00:09:25 - Now, you'll see a problem here, if you're not the root user, it's
00:09:28 - going to give you all sorts of permission denied errors, like,
00:09:32 - why I can't look in this folder, you're not allowed to look in there,
00:09:35 - but, places that you can look for things, it actually found the
00:09:40 - exact word mail, and find searches for the exact word, okay.
00:09:44 - So, it searched for mail. So if we searched for m-a-i,
00:09:52 - it's not going to find it, because it only searches for exactly
00:09:54 - what you're looking for. It's not very user friendly when it
00:09:58 - comes to searching for wild card things, although the other
00:10:01 - command I want to show you,
00:10:05 - locate; is much more forgiving, see, then it searches for
00:10:10 - things, where it finds mail anywhere, okay. So it would find the
00:10:14 - same files from before, but also anything that has the word
00:10:17 - mail in it, see, it found mail right there. So it, it told us that
00:10:22 - that was a result, and did you notice how much faster it went? If we do
00:10:26 - find, and you can do some other flags with find, we'll go in the root directory,
00:10:31 - and you can, instead of the name of the file, we could say user
00:10:36 - spowers. So now it's going to find every file that has the user
00:10:42 - spowers, okay, who owns it. Now, as it turns out, again, we got
00:10:46 - a lot of those permission denied things, but it turns out I
00:10:49 - own all these files, in the temporary directory, which makes
00:10:53 - sense, because it's a temporary file that I created, so I own
00:10:57 - that. This tmp/ssh, I own that, so it just searched
00:11:01 - for all the files that I own. Now if we do it as root,
00:11:08 - we won't get those permission denied errors.
00:11:12 - It'll search for every file,
00:11:14 - and it found all the ones that I own, and it returned that,
00:11:18 - that answer, okay. Now, that did go pretty fast, I'll admit,
00:11:21 - but, locate is even faster, but this just searches for file names.
00:11:26 - So here I can't search, I can't be quite as specific as I can
00:11:29 - with the find command. Here I can just locate a file called
00:11:34 - spowers. See, everything in the spowers directory,
00:11:39 - everything in the spowers directory as the whole, it just searches the whole
00:11:42 - path for anything with that, with spowers in it. See, vmware-spowers,
00:11:49 - oop, we passed the, where I typed it,
00:11:58 - there, okay, that's where I typed it, locate powers, or spowers. So anyway,
00:12:03 - it found all of those things,
00:12:05 - and, oh, here's something interesting. You'll notice that it didn't
00:12:10 - find all those temp files.
00:12:13 - Well, why didn't it find all those temp files? That's where.
00:12:18 - Let's, let's be root for a minute so we can edit stuff.
00:12:22 - I want to go into the etc directory,
00:12:25 - and I want to edit
00:12:28 - updatedb.conf.
00:12:31 - In here,
00:12:33 - it tells us PRUNEPATHS. Now, this is the, this is not prune, the fruit,
00:12:38 - these, this tells us that, how the locate database is going
00:12:45 - to search, okay, so basically what it says,
00:12:49 - it's not going to search mounted directories,
00:12:52 - this is actually commented out, but it's not going to search
00:12:56 - these paths. It's not going to search temp, var/spool or media,
00:13:00 - and it's not going to search these types of file systems.
00:13:04 - So all of these file systems, like if there was a CD in there,
00:13:08 - it wouldn't search, an iso9660 file system, it wouldn't
00:13:13 - search a USB file system, and it configures it so that the
00:13:18 - locate database stays pretty tight and compact, and doesn't search
00:13:21 - the temp directory and stuff. So how, how does that
00:13:26 - update, or that locate database, or the updatedb database,
00:13:29 - how does that work in comparison with find? Well, like I said,
00:13:33 - find goes in real time, okay. Find actually searches. You can
00:13:36 - say find in home/spowers, and if you don't give it any flags,
00:13:41 - it'll show every single
00:13:44 - file and folder inside there,
00:13:47 - or you can say, find in the root directory, and since we're root,
00:13:51 - it's going to go through and show us every single file in the
00:13:55 - entire file system, which will take a long time. Do, do, do.
00:14:01 - I'm actually going to hit Ctrl c, because that's really
00:14:04 - huge, and you can search by, you know, group id, you can search
00:14:07 - by all kinds of stuff. In fact, if we look at the
00:14:11 - man page really quickly, we can see there's all kinds of options
00:14:14 - that you can use to search by, okay. You can search,
00:14:19 - oh, you can search by depth, how, how far down a directory path
00:14:24 - it'll go. You can ignore things. You can do all sorts of different
00:14:28 - things, okay, and that's like we showed you, you can search by the time it
00:14:31 - was accessed, the time it was, also, the time it was changed,
00:14:37 - whether it's executable or not, who owns it, all these sorts
00:14:40 - of things you can use the find command by, but the locate command is
00:14:44 - quicker. So let's not be root anymore.
00:14:48 - Let's go to our home directory, there's nothing in here, okay.
00:14:51 - So, let's create a file,
00:14:56 - touch martha.txt, okay, so there's that file martha.txt.
00:15:01 - Let's try to locate it.
00:15:06 - Hmm, it didn't find it. Well, why didn't it find it? That's because
00:15:10 - the updatedb database, which is what locate uses, only updates
00:15:15 - every day.
00:15:17 - So, usually, sometime in the middle of the night, it'll go through,
00:15:21 - and basically what it does, it uses the find command and it
00:15:24 - makes a huge database of everything, but the down side is, it
00:15:28 - doesn't update in real time. So, if the database doesn't have
00:15:31 - that file martha in it, if I type locate martha, it's not going to
00:15:36 - find it. So, what we have to do, you can either wait, we
00:15:40 - can wait until tomorrow, but I'm sure you wanna finish off this
00:15:42 - series, so what I'll do, I will show you. If you type sudo updatedb,
00:15:47 - you have to be the root user, because the update database
00:15:51 - is, is protected, so that only the root user can, can modify
00:15:55 - it. So sudo updatedb,
00:15:59 - and then, what it does now,
00:16:02 - locate martha,
00:16:03 - now it finds it. Okay, now I don't have a lot of files on this
00:16:06 - system, so, so the updatedb command, happened pretty darn quick,
00:16:11 - but if you have a lot of files, or you're indexing, like the home
00:16:14 - directories, or stuff like that, updatedb will take a long
00:16:17 - time, so it's usually done once, usually sometime in the middle of the
00:16:20 - night. So we updated the database, and then all of a sudden,
00:16:24 - we could find that martha dot text file. So that's the difference
00:16:28 - between find and locate, both really useful tools, but for
00:16:32 - slightly different circumstances.
00:16:34 - All right, the other commands that are specifically mentioned for this nugget
00:16:37 - that we need to know, are commands that help us find other commands,
00:16:41 - all right. So let's clear this screen out, and now we know the command
00:16:46 - ls, right. We know what it does. It shows us the listing, but, what if we wanted
00:16:50 - to know where that lived? Well, we could type which,
00:16:55 - and then the command ls and it will show us where that actual
00:16:59 - command is. So let's look; ls /bin/ls, and sure enough,
00:17:05 - that's where the command is, all right. Can do this -l,
00:17:08 - so we can see more information, but that's it, ls
00:17:12 - is located in bin/ls, and that makes perfect sense, because
00:17:16 - bin is in our path, which you learned about before, and that's
00:17:19 - that. So, what if we wanted to, let's try type, this is another
00:17:23 - command, ls.
00:17:26 - Type tells us a couple things. Type tells us if it's aliased, and
00:17:29 - here you'll see, now we're not going to learn about aliases
00:17:33 - in the first test of the LPIC1 exam. We're going to
00:17:35 - learn about that later on in, in test number two, but we're going
00:17:39 - to learn about aliases, and every time I type ls, really, it goes
00:17:44 - ls --color=auto, and that just let's it do
00:17:47 - this cool stuff with color, all right. So the difference, if I do
00:17:51 - this, ls, oop,
00:17:54 - ls -l,
00:17:56 - or ls -l /bin/ls. See that it's green, but if I were to type
00:18:05 - /bin/ls -l
00:18:07 - /bin/ls,
00:18:10 - it's just going to be black, see, the so the difference, boy, is that
00:18:13 - ever confusing, huh? I guess I should have picked a different command, but
00:18:17 - ls -l shows us this with the fancy little color thing, because
00:18:21 - there's an alias set up, and that's what the type command shows
00:18:24 - us, it just shows us if there's an alias that a command is running on,
00:18:27 - okay, and because if we actually type the full path to it, you'll
00:18:31 - see that it doesn't use that color, that color command, but anyway,
00:18:34 - we're going to learn about that in a later, in a later nugget, but you'll see
00:18:36 - that type does that. You can now, also use the type command -a
00:18:40 - tell us all about the ls command, in which case it'll
00:18:44 - say it's aliased to that, and it is located right there, okay, so, that,
00:18:50 - again, which ls shows us where it's located, type tells us that. If we
00:18:55 - want to learn even more about a command, we can use
00:18:59 - whereis ls,
00:19:02 - and it tells us a couple things. It says, ls is located at
00:19:06 - bin/ls, and it has a manual page, at usr/share/man/man1/ls.1.gz.
00:19:12 - So, if we type man ls, we know there's a man page,
00:19:16 - and that's where it's actually coming from, okay. So those are
00:19:19 - three commands, they're useful, they don't just work for ls. I mean whereis
00:19:23 - cp, well, cp is in bin/cp as well, and usr/share/man
00:19:29 - pages, well, this nugget, and our first test for the LPIC exam
00:19:34 - are just about finished. Let's make sure we had everything
00:19:36 - covered. All right, we learned about the FHS. What those
00:19:40 - couple pages of standards about where the folders and where
00:19:43 - things are located. Again, you want to go over those again, just
00:19:46 - to make sure that you're familiar with them, but after this
00:19:48 - entire series, you're probably pretty familiar with a lot of
00:19:50 - those folders anyway. We learned how to fie, how the find files
00:19:55 - and commands. Now why I separated that, is because we use the
00:19:58 - whereis, the which, and the type to find actual binary commands,
00:20:02 - and then we used
00:20:04 - find and locate to find different files. You can also find commands
00:20:08 - with that too, but to find files. We learned about how to run
00:20:12 - updatedb. You have to do that as the root user, and that will
00:20:16 - update the database so that locate will be updated, because
00:20:19 - find, while it does it in real time, locate requires that database to be
00:20:23 - updated in order to be accurate, and then we learned about
00:20:26 - whereis, which tells us a lot of stuff about a particular binary
00:20:30 - file, like where the man page is, and where it's located. The which
00:20:33 - command, the type command, which tells us where it is, type will
00:20:37 - tell us if it's an aliased file, if it's just a direct, if
00:20:40 - it, there's no alias to it, and then we learned, just briefly,
00:20:44 - about the updatedb.conf file, remember where it pruned out like the
00:20:48 - temp directory, so that locate never found files in the temp
00:20:51 - directory, and that's about it.
00:20:54 - I hope that this has been informative for you, and I would like
00:20:57 - to thank you for viewing.

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Shawn Powers

Shawn Powers

CBT Nuggets Trainer

Certifications:
LPIC-1; CompTIA Linux+, A+; Cisco CCNA

Area Of Expertise:
Linux

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