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LPI Linux LPIC-1 101 and CompTIA Linux+

Create Partitions and Filesystems

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LPIC1 & CompTIA Linux+ Intro

Hardware Settings

Boot the System

Change Runlevels and Reboot or Shutdown the System

Design Hard Disk Layout

Install a Boot Manager

Manage Shared Libraries

Debian Package Management

RPM & YUM Package Management

Work on the Command Line

Process Text Streams Using Filters

Perform Basic File Management

Use Streams, Pipes, and Redirects

Create, Monitor, and Kill Processes

Process Priorities

Search Text Files with Regular Expressions

Perform Basic File Editing Operations Using vi

Create Partitions and Filesystems

00:00:00 - Okay, welcome to Nugget 104.1. Here we're going to learn
00:00:04 - how to create partitions and file systems on a hard drive or a
00:00:08 - block device in the Linux system. Now, this shouldn't be a really
00:00:11 - long nugget because it's not terribly involved to do this. But I'm going to
00:00:14 - try to explain some concepts so that you understand not only
00:00:17 - how to do it but what exactly you're doing. We're going to
00:00:20 - cover partitioning hard drives, creating a file system on there,
00:00:24 - and then we're also going to mention swap space. So before we get started
00:00:27 - on actually how to do it, let's talk about the hard drive
00:00:30 - itself. So if the hard drive is represented by this giant square
00:00:35 - here, let's say that this is all the space like ones and
00:00:40 - zeros, magnetic media, whatever inside. Now, before the computer,
00:00:44 - the operating system can recognize it we have to chop it up into
00:00:48 - pieces. Now, it can just be one giant piece. So this is going
00:00:53 - to be a rough concept, but let's see. You just divide it
00:00:57 - up into one piece, and this is just one partition of the hard
00:01:01 - drive. Now, you can also divide it into four pieces.
00:01:07 - This is, would be a primary partition can be divided or a hard
00:01:11 - drive can be divided into four primary partitions. Now, you can
00:01:14 - also do some other work called with extended partition so
00:01:18 - that you can divide it into more and more pieces of different
00:01:22 - sizes if you want.
00:01:24 - But basically, you need to know that the hard drive is like
00:01:28 - this big square and we need to divide up the area on the hard
00:01:31 - disk into partitions and then those partitions like this
00:01:37 - could be formatted in a way that
00:01:41 - Windows recognizes and this one could be something that
00:01:48 - Linux recognizes and this could be OS or 022. That's supposed
00:01:55 - to be OS2.
00:01:58 - But this could be OS2. This could be Solaris. This
00:02:02 - could be another Windows. So you just chop it up into these
00:02:06 - pieces and on those individual pieces or partitions that's where
00:02:12 - you write
00:02:14 - a file system and a file system is actually where the operating
00:02:18 - system will store your data. So your hard drive is this giant
00:02:22 - storage media, and I know I'm just drawing a bunch of circles now, but
00:02:24 - it's a giant storage media that is divided up into partitions
00:02:28 - and each individual partition is formatted with a file system
00:02:32 - that the operating system can understand, alright. So let's talk
00:02:36 - about how we actually do that to a hard drive.
00:02:39 - Okay, so here we are at the command line. Now, on this computer
00:02:42 - what I have done is I've inserted a blank drive. Now, it's a virtual
00:02:46 - machine. So really it's not a drive, but it's a blank drive
00:02:49 - container just as if I put a blank hard drive in a computer. So
00:02:53 - if we want to see what's in the computer, if you type sudo,
00:02:56 - because we have to do this as root, fdisk -l,
00:02:59 - it will list all of the drives
00:03:03 - that are in the computer. So we'll see what we have here.
00:03:07 - This tells you what disk we have, dev/sda, we talked about what
00:03:12 - these devices are before. But basically, this is the first hard drive.
00:03:15 - It's 10.7 gigabytes and it's divided into these
00:03:20 - different partitions,okay. So now you may be wondering why does it go 1, 2, 5?
00:03:25 - Well, that's because it's, there's one partition, this
00:03:29 - sda slice 1 and that is
00:03:34 - formatted as the Linux partition. This is actually the, the root
00:03:37 - partition. And then what we've done is the, it generally makes
00:03:42 - any additional partitions what we call extended partitions.
00:03:47 - Now, there's only two real partitions here. So you know, we didn't
00:03:51 - have to make an extended partition, but what this allows us
00:03:54 - to do is have many, many more partitions outside of the four
00:03:59 - that a hard drive normally supports. So sda2 is really
00:04:03 - just a partition telling the, the computer where the other
00:04:07 - partitions are, if that makes any sense. By default it only supports
00:04:11 - four partitions. So if we make an extended partition in one
00:04:15 - of the first four, it allows us to do many more. So five, six,
00:04:19 - seven, eight, nine, ten, that kind thing, alright. So there's
00:04:22 - only two partitions here. This, there is this third one, but
00:04:25 - it's just the extended partition telling the computer where
00:04:28 - the ones past four are. That's also why it skipped three and four. One,
00:04:33 - two, three and four are primary partitions.
00:04:36 - Sda5 or partition 5 is one of the extended
00:04:40 - partitions outside of that. So hopefully, that makes sense. Another thing it
00:04:45 - shows us here is that the first partition is bootable. Now,
00:04:49 - Linux honestly doesn't care if a partition is bootable or not. It will
00:04:52 - boot that partition regardless. But Windows requires that it's flagged
00:04:56 - as bootable if it's a, if it's a Windows partition that we're, that we're
00:04:59 - looking at. This one of course is just Linux. So the other
00:05:04 - hard drive that I put in is completely blank. It's dev/sdb
00:05:09 - and it's a 20-gig hard drive. And it says here that
00:05:14 - disk can't, does not contain a valid partition table. Okay, that's
00:05:18 - because it's just a raw disk. If you get a disk from the store
00:05:21 - and you put it in there, that's generally what you would expect to
00:05:24 - see is that there's no partition table at all or it's possible
00:05:27 - that there is an existing partition table on there and you would
00:05:30 - just want to wipe that before you install your, your operating
00:05:33 - system, okay. But this shows you what's on the computer. The partition
00:05:37 - I didn't talk about too much, this is a swap partition. Now, we know
00:05:41 - what swap space is because we've learned it before. That's where your computer,
00:05:44 - the memory that your computer uses if it runs out of actual memory,
00:05:48 - rather than crashing it will write things into swap space which is
00:05:51 - like a page file or virtual memory, okay. And it's just a partition
00:05:55 - and we'll, we'll see in a few minutes here how to go about making that. But again,
00:05:59 - it just shows up as another partition on the hard drive, alright.
00:06:03 - So if we want to actually edit and create partitions in sdb,
00:06:08 - we again use the fdisk command.
00:06:12 - This time since we know the hard drive, what we're going to do is type sudo
00:06:16 - fdisk and then the device we want to edit which is
00:06:20 - sdb, okay. So we do that, and it warns us of a couple
00:06:24 - things. It says there's no partition table which we already know.
00:06:27 - It says that if you're going to do anything bigger than 124
00:06:31 - cylinders, old operating systems like OS2 and MS-DOS won't understand it.
00:06:36 - Okay, that's fine. That's fine. We're going to be using
00:06:39 - Linux and we're going to be using GRUB. We're not going to be using LILO
00:06:43 - anyway so, anyway, this is, this is how we start fdisk. I would
00:06:47 - suggest, first of all, typing m
00:06:50 - and this shows us all the commands that we can do. Now, the very first
00:06:54 - thing you do in fdisk
00:06:56 - is press p
00:06:57 - because that's going to show you the specifications of the
00:07:00 - drive that you're editing. And this is just to make sure that
00:07:03 - we didn't accidentally type in the wrong drive or we remembered
00:07:06 - incorrectly which device that we wanted to edit. And sure enough
00:07:09 - this is our device, 20 gigs or 21.4 gigs.
00:07:13 - There are no partitions set up so, you know, there's nothing
00:07:17 - set up on this one so we know that it's the correct one.
00:07:21 - So press m again and see what, what options we have. We're going
00:07:24 - to create a partition or two. So let's add a new partition.
00:07:29 - Well, n for add a new partition. Now, do we want it to be extended or
00:07:32 - primary? Now, I talked a little bit about what that means, and for our
00:07:35 - purposes right now, a primary partition is going to be fine.
00:07:39 - We'll say partition number one.
00:07:42 - And where do we want the first cylinder to start? So this is basically
00:07:45 - saying, where on the hard drive do you want it to start? If you remember
00:07:48 - the picture of our hard drive, just imagine the cylinders
00:07:51 - are numbered like one through 2610, okay.
00:07:55 - Well, the first one is at the beginning of the drive and that's
00:07:57 - actually where we, where we want this. So let's say one, and then we get
00:08:01 - to say how big to make the partition. Now, you can do it by cylinder.
00:08:06 - You can say the last cylinder which is what it's defaulting
00:08:09 - to here, and that will use the entire drive as one partition.
00:08:12 - But that's not what we want. I actually want to make a couple of
00:08:15 - partitions here. So we have a couple other options. We could just try
00:08:18 - and guess which cylinder we'd want to stop at and that's fine. But you can
00:08:21 - be more specific and say just how big you want it to be in kilobytes,
00:08:25 - megabytes or gigabytes. And that's what I'm going to do.
00:08:29 - Now, you have to put the plus because that tells it that we're
00:08:31 - going to do it by a size or, you know, specify a number here. And
00:08:36 - let's see. It's 8 or it's 20 gigs or 21.4
00:08:39 - gigs. So let's do 18 and then G for gig, okay. So we're following
00:08:45 - this plus the size is 18G for gigabytes. So +18G
00:08:50 - and it should be done. Let's press p again and print, and sure enough
00:08:55 - we have this sdb slice 1 partition 1 that starts
00:09:01 - here and ends here.
00:09:03 - How many blocks it is. And it gave it an Id. Now, now, that's
00:09:07 - important, okay. So let's look at m help again. It's Id in
00:09:12 - hexadecimal 83 which means it's going to be a Linux partition, alright.
00:09:15 - Let's say we wanted to, where is that?
00:09:21 - Change a partition system Id, alright. Say, we wanted to install
00:09:25 - Windows on that. Well, press t.
00:09:29 - Now, if you know the hex code, that's great. And there's
00:09:32 - a couple that are common, but it's nice to type l and get
00:09:35 - the list of different codes because as you can see there's
00:09:38 - a whole bunch of them. Now, as default it does 83 which is the
00:09:42 - Linux type, okay. So we could change it to something like,
00:09:48 - what if we wanted Windows 95 FAT32 or
00:09:52 - Windows 95 FAT32 with large block access, right,
00:09:56 - for something over two gigabytes? Alright, so that's what we would do
00:10:00 - there or there's all these different kinds of partitions
00:10:03 - that you can specify. Generally, you only do a few. You might make
00:10:07 - a Windows FAT32 partition. You will very likely
00:10:12 - make this LINUX partition. You could do a Linux swap partition
00:10:18 - which is actually the other one that we're going to do or you
00:10:20 - may want to do something like Linux RAID if you're doing software
00:10:23 - RAID. But for us right now the first partition, I want that
00:10:26 - to be what it is. I want it to be the Linux partition code 83.
00:10:29 - Let's type code 83, alright.
00:10:33 - And now it already was code 83. But that's fine
00:10:37 - because we're going to make another partition. So new,
00:10:40 - going to be another primary partition.
00:10:43 - This time let's do partition number 2.
00:10:46 - And now it says the first cylinder. Now, it can be anywhere from
00:10:49 - 2352 to 2610, okay, because one through
00:10:53 - 2351 are used up by our first partition.
00:10:56 - So you can see that right here. So we're going to start with the
00:10:59 - next cylinder. We don't want to waste any of the hard drive. So we'll just take the
00:11:03 - default of 2352. Press enter. And now we
00:11:07 - could figure out exactly how many gigabytes are left. But I basically
00:11:11 - just want to use the rest of the hard drive, right? I just,
00:11:14 - I have that one partition that's my Linux system, and I want
00:11:16 - to use the rest for swap. So I'm just going to take the
00:11:19 - default of the last cylinder. So just hit enter to take that default
00:11:23 - again. See, it's done. And now if we press p to print the partition
00:11:27 - table, we'll see we now have two partitions. We have one that
00:11:32 - is around 18 gigabytes and it's Id 83 which is
00:11:37 - a Linux type. And then we have slice 2 which is, oh,
00:11:43 - it looks like right around two gigabytes, a little bit more. That
00:11:46 - makes sense. But this is type 83 Linux. That's not
00:11:50 - what we want, right?
00:11:52 - So press m. What is our command to change the partition system
00:11:56 - Id? It's t. So press t.
00:11:59 - Which partition? Two, the one that we just did. And I don't remember the
00:12:04 - code. Actually, I do but
00:12:06 - let's type l again, and we know that we want it to be Linux swap, alright.
00:12:11 - That's the type of partition. Now, it's important to note that
00:12:14 - what we're doing here is setting the partition type. We're not
00:12:16 - putting a file system on it.
00:12:18 - That's coming next, but just keep that straight that there's
00:12:22 - types of partitions and then there's file systems in those
00:12:25 - partitions. Right now we're just setting
00:12:27 - the type of partition. We want that to be
00:12:31 - 82 Linux swap.
00:12:34 - If we press p, we'll see now it's just what we want. See, we have this
00:12:38 - as Linux. This is Linux swap. Two slices on our, on our hard drive
00:12:43 - there. So now we're ready to quit. But you want to make sure
00:12:49 - that we write, alright.
00:12:52 - And that's what we want to do. So we type w and what it's going to do is write that
00:12:56 - to the partition table. Syncing disks. This is normal. And now, if we type sudo
00:13:03 - fdisk -l,
00:13:06 - now we should see things from two different
00:13:09 - hard drives. Our original one, this is what Ubuntu did
00:13:12 - when it was installed originally. It decided to make an extended
00:13:15 - partition in case I wanted to make a bunch of different partitions
00:13:18 - later. I didn't do that. I just made two in the primary partition or
00:13:22 - two primary partitions. And we have a Linux and a Linux swap, also
00:13:26 - Solaris swap. These are the same type of
00:13:29 - partition Id, alright. So that's how we go about partitioning
00:13:33 - our drive. But now we need to put a file system on there
00:13:37 - or we'll never be able to mount it and use it.
00:13:41 - The next step is actually pretty painless. Now, the LPIC and CompTIA
00:13:44 - exams, they will, they specify five different file
00:13:48 - systems that you have to be able to know how to format and
00:13:52 - then one that's not really a file system. We'll, we'll do that one first and that one
00:13:55 - is Linux swap. Now, it's basically just as easy as typing sudo
00:14:02 - mkswap for make swap and then the partition that you
00:14:07 - want to make a swap file which for us is dev/sdb2.
00:14:13 - See, dev/sdb2
00:14:16 - is our Linux swap, okay. So you type that.
00:14:20 - It will go through and that's really all it took. It's that quick because
00:14:23 - it doesn't really have a file or a file system format, but
00:14:27 - this is how you create swap space, okay.
00:14:31 - So it's two gigabytes. It's there. That's the UUID. And I
00:14:34 - won't show you how to activate this on,
00:14:38 - on a system. I won't show you how to do that because that's a later
00:14:41 - nugget, how you activate it, how you mount it automatically when
00:14:44 - the system boots up. But it's pretty painless. Yeah, I mean really quickly.
00:14:48 - If you type sudo swapon /dev/sdb2,
00:14:53 - that's all there is to it. And now that swap space is active, okay.
00:14:58 - So it's, it's pretty painless.
00:15:01 - And if you to make sure that it's being used, just type
00:15:04 - swapon -s and it will show all the different partitions that
00:15:11 - are currently being used to swap space, okay. Actually, it is using
00:15:15 - a little bit of our initial swap space, but none of the swap
00:15:18 - space we just activated, okay. So that's how you do swap. Now,
00:15:22 - the other parts we're going to actually format actual file systems
00:15:26 - on our, on our system. So let's make sure we know what we're looking at,
00:15:30 - sudo fdisk -l again, and we know that these are our
00:15:37 - partitions. Now, we use similar commands to make all the different,
00:15:42 - the five different file systems that we need to know how
00:15:44 - to do. So we'll just go through them fairly quickly here. The
00:15:48 - command that you use is first you have to be root. So sudo
00:15:51 - mkfs for make file system -t and then
00:15:56 - the type of file system. Now, we're going to do ext2, that's the
00:16:00 - first one that we need to make, and then where you want it to be,
00:16:03 - dev/sdb1, see, because that's the partition that we set up, right?
00:16:09 - sdb1 is the Linux partition. So we do that
00:16:13 - and it goes through and writes in the file system and it's
00:16:16 - all created. It's okay if it takes a long time if your disk is
00:16:19 - bigger. Again, this is only an 18-gig drive so it goes pretty
00:16:22 - quick. But the next thing that we do is very similar. We'll
00:16:27 - say sudo and mkfs -t
00:16:33 - ext3 because now we're going to use the next file system,
00:16:37 - ext2. The next one is ext3 that we have
00:16:40 - to learn. The difference being that ext3 is a journaling
00:16:43 - file system which we'll learn about later. You don't have to worry about
00:16:46 - that right now. Dev/sdb1
00:16:50 - and it went through then formatted in ext3 file
00:16:53 - system. And like I said, it's a journaling file system so sure enough
00:16:57 - it created a journal.
00:16:59 - Now, the third one that we need to learn, what, there is a different
00:17:02 - way that you can do this as well, sudo mkfs. Now, normally, you do
00:17:07 - -t and then the next type of file system which is going
00:17:10 - to be f or xfs. But you can also, there's a little
00:17:15 - command.xfs. Now, I don't know that that's a lot simpler. I guess it's
00:17:20 - a couple fewer keystrokes. So if you prefer to just do that,
00:17:23 - this is a program that instead of mkfs and then dash t
00:17:26 - the, the type, just mkfs.xfs is a program
00:17:30 - that will create an xfs file system. So if you prefer it that
00:17:34 - way, go right ahead and then where you want to do it, sdb1.
00:17:39 - Now for some reason xfs is much more careful
00:17:43 - about how it, if it, but it doesn't want you to overwrite something
00:17:47 - that's there. It says, whoa, there's already a file system, ext3,
00:17:51 - that exists on dev/sdb1 which we know because we just
00:17:55 - made that, right? So we do just like it says. We'll add the -f flag.
00:18:01 - Basically, sudo mkfs.xfs -f for force,
00:18:06 - just like it told us to do on
00:18:08 - that partition and it did. Now, it made the, the xfs file
00:18:14 - system on that partition, okay.
00:18:18 - Actually, let's retype it, sudo mkfs. I usually use the -t
00:18:25 - for some reason. I don't know why I just like it, but the last
00:18:27 - one we need to know is reiserfs, okay;
00:18:32 - dev/sdb1, and this should look pretty similar. Oh, no,
00:18:37 - all of your data is going to be lost. Yes, we're sure, wahaha.
00:18:43 - So now it's done the same thing. It's formatted our drive.
00:18:47 - It gives you a warning that you want to make sure you have
00:18:49 - kernel 2.4.18 or later if you're going
00:18:52 - to use reiserfs version 3. This is version 3,
00:18:55 - by the way, of reiserfs. That's what comes by default.
00:19:00 - I don't think you can get an older version right now
00:19:02 - on a modern operating system. But anyway, that's how you do reiserfs.
00:19:06 - Now, the one other file system that we need to create is VFAT,
00:19:11 - which is one that Windows and DOS can read. But before we do
00:19:15 - that, we have to make a change with
00:19:18 - fdisk. Since in fdisk, I will show you, sudo fdisk -l. Now,
00:19:24 - if you remember when we did this,
00:19:27 - sdb1 is a Linux type of partition which means that we can't
00:19:32 - put a DOS file system on there, can we? So what we do, sudo
00:19:37 - fdisk
00:19:40 - dev/sdb. Alright. Now what do I always
00:19:42 - say to do? Press p. Make sure you're working on the right partition, right?
00:19:46 - And we are. This is the partition. No, we don't need to make
00:19:49 - the partition again. We're just going to change the Id, okay.
00:19:55 - So if you remember,
00:19:57 - type the help command to change a partition system Id, press t,
00:20:00 - partition number. Well, we want to do it on sdb1,
00:20:05 - and the hex code that we want. Well, I don't remember all of
00:20:09 - them. So press or type l to get the list of codes, and
00:20:13 - let's see. We need it to be a Windows type file system, right?
00:20:17 - So let's go and make it
00:20:21 - Windows 95 FAT32 with large block support, okay.
00:20:24 - So c is the hex code that we need. So down here type c.
00:20:29 - And now it should be, if we type p, changed, okay. Now, it's a Windows 95
00:20:35 - FAT32 type partition. So if we type w to write that, it's
00:20:41 - going to resync our disks,
00:20:45 - alright, sync the disks, alright. So now if we type mk sudo, we
00:20:50 - can't forget sudo, mkfs -t vfat, this is
00:20:56 - one that Windows will be able to read,
00:20:59 - dev/sdb1.
00:21:03 - That's it. It's done. It created an MS-DOS file system or Windows
00:21:07 - file system on that partition, alright. So that's all there
00:21:11 - is to making partitions. Let's go over to make sure we remember
00:21:15 - which ones that we need to remember how to make and how to activate,
00:21:19 - some swap partitions. And we're just about done.
00:21:22 - See, I told you this was going to be an easy one, alright. We learned
00:21:26 - how to partition using the tool fdisk.
00:21:30 - And then we learned how to create different file systems and
00:21:34 - the ones you need to learn are the ext2,
00:21:39 - ext3, xfs, reiserfs, and vfat, alright.
00:21:45 - And then you need to remember how to make swap space which was
00:21:48 - just mkswap,
00:21:51 - that's a k right there, mkswap and to turn it on,
00:21:57 - swapon, alright. Now, we're going to learn how to mount all
00:22:01 - these things and mount them automatically in a later nugget.
00:22:03 - But for this that's all you have to know. See, that nugget wasn't
00:22:07 - too bad at all.
00:22:08 - I hope that this has been informative for you, and I'd like to
00:22:11 - thank you for viewing.

Maintain the Integrity of Filesystems

Control Mounting and Unmounting of Filesystems

Manage Disk Quotas

Manage File Permissions and Ownership

Create and Change Hard and Symbolic Links

Find System Files and Place Files in the Correct Location

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Shawn Powers

Shawn Powers

CBT Nuggets Trainer

Certifications:
LPIC-1; CompTIA Linux+, A+; Cisco CCNA

Area Of Expertise:
Linux

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