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LPIC1 & CompTIA Linux+ Intro

Hardware Settings

Boot the System

Change Runlevels and Reboot or Shutdown the System

Design Hard Disk Layout

Install a Boot Manager

00:00:00 - Okay, welcome to section 102.2. In this nugget we're
00:00:04 - going to talk about installing and managing boot loaders or boot managers.
00:00:08 - We're going to talk about two. One is LILO or LILO -- I think LILO, I'm
00:00:12 - not sure exactly how to say it. The other one is GRUB. Now
00:00:15 - LILO is very rarely, if at all, used anymore. But you may run
00:00:19 - across a couple situations that you find LILO to be the
00:00:23 - installed boot manager. So we're going to go over that, even if briefly,
00:00:26 - just so that you understand how to manage that. And then the LPIC,
00:00:29 - the LPIC
00:00:31 - Class actually specifically mentions GRUB as the boot loader
00:00:35 - that you should be able to configure. So we're going to go over that in some
00:00:37 - length, and lastly we're going to talk about how to back up the master boot
00:00:41 - record or the MBR. All right, so let's look at a computer
00:00:45 - and we're going to try and take a peek at what LILO would look
00:00:48 - like if you run across a computer with it installed.
00:00:52 - Okay, if you run across a computer that has LILO installed, generally the
00:00:55 - configuration file is stored in a file called /etc/lilo.conf,
00:01:00 - all right. It'll look something like this. Now it looks similar to some
00:01:05 - of the GRUB stuff that we saw in a few nuggets back and that we're
00:01:08 - going to look at here in just a couple minutes. But let's go
00:01:10 - over what's talked about here, all right. Boot is what device it's
00:01:14 - going to boot from. In this case, it is SDA, the first serial
00:01:18 - ATA or SCSI device, so A. Map is what
00:01:23 - the LILO command actually creates a map file to say what's
00:01:27 - mapped where. This is generally where it's kept, you just leave that alone. Install, this is
00:01:31 - the default and generally leave this boot.b as
00:01:36 - the default. If you leave install off, it's going to default to that
00:01:38 - anyway. Prompt is whether or not it prompts the user if, you know,
00:01:43 - to even say, hey, do you want a choice or do you just want me to boot directly. So
00:01:46 - generally you see prompt just in case you want to have a couple choices.
00:01:49 - That leads us to the timeout. It'll time out and boot the default in
00:01:54 - 50 seconds, in this case. You can make this however long or
00:01:56 - short you want. The message is neat. It'll add whatever text
00:02:01 - is in this message to your boot screen. So you can have a file
00:02:04 - called boot/message that says, like, Welcome to Sean's computer, please
00:02:08 - be nice, et cetera, et cetera.
00:02:10 - And then LBA talks about the type of drive. It's an
00:02:12 - LBA drive using large blocks so it can address the entire
00:02:15 - drive. Default is what default label it boots after that timeout
00:02:21 - at 50 seconds or, you know, or no timeout at all if
00:02:23 - you don't have a prompt thing there. It's going to boot the label
00:02:27 - Linux by default, which you'll notice down here. So let's move on. We have two
00:02:30 - different operating systems or two stanzas that we've defined
00:02:33 - here. The first one is vmlinuz-2.6.28-11-generic.
00:02:37 - This is the kernel, the kernel image
00:02:42 - and that is specified as to where it's located. This boot directory
00:02:46 - is located on this SDA device, right. So that's where it's
00:02:51 - at. Label again, Linux we talked about, the initial RAM disk
00:02:55 - we talked about a few nuggets back what that means, and that
00:02:58 - shows where it's at. It's stored in this boot directory. Read-only
00:03:02 - mean it's going to, it's going to mount that root disk --
00:03:06 - not that root disk, that RAM disk -- read-only along with the kernel. And then the
00:03:10 - root device, /dev/sda1. That's the actual -- that's where
00:03:13 - this boot directory is located. Again, on hard drive one, the
00:03:16 - first hard drive, is where this
00:03:20 - LILO is going to be installed and then on this partition
00:03:24 - is where it's going to find this boot folder. Does that make sense? All right.
00:03:28 - So that's the stuff we specify in this, and then this is just an example
00:03:32 - of what a DOS image. So you had DOS6 installed on the
00:03:36 - fifth partition, the first extended partition, so /dev/sda5.
00:03:39 - It just gives it the label of DOS, and we'll call it
00:03:44 - other because this should be listed as long as this is an active
00:03:47 - and bootable partition, all right. So that's what our config
00:03:50 - file looks like.
00:03:52 - And to install it, basically you just type LILO. It will go through
00:03:57 - and it'll give us a couple warnings, all right. The initial RAM disk
00:04:00 - is too big to fit between the kernel and the 15M-16M
00:04:04 - memory hole. This is a limitation on a lot of older computers,
00:04:07 - and it's working around. It's saying that okay, we'll just assume
00:04:10 - that BIOS supports this and most likely BIOS does, depending
00:04:13 - on, you know, how old your operating system is, your
00:04:16 - computer hardware is. But what it's done, it's added, it says added
00:04:20 - Linux ?, right. It doesn't know what version
00:04:24 - or what kind of Linux, it's just Linux. It didn't add DOS because
00:04:28 - /dev/sda5 where I said DOS is located doesn't really
00:04:31 - have DOS installed. I wouldn't even know how to begin to install
00:04:34 - DOS anymore. But it would just add another menu option to
00:04:37 - that. And then to access that once the computer boots
00:04:41 - up, it's as simple as hitting the tab button. It'll give you all
00:04:45 - the different boot options you have and you can add kernel
00:04:47 - flags at the end, all right. It looks pretty similar to GRUB when it boots
00:04:50 - up but much, much simpler. And basically, that's all you need to
00:04:55 - know about LILO. If you come across one, that's how to configure it in
00:04:58 - this file, that's how to install it on the master boot record, and
00:05:01 - then when it boots up you'll see a little prompt you can hit Tab to
00:05:05 - see all the different boot options. And that's LILO in a nutshell.
00:05:08 - But let's move on to GRUB, because GRUB is the Grand Unified
00:05:12 - Bootloader, and that's what's really focused on in the
00:05:16 - LPIC exams and pretty much every computer you're going to be
00:05:19 - managing now. So let's talk about that next.
00:05:22 - All right, GRUB is a little more extensive. Well it can be configured
00:05:24 - to boot from a floppy drive and all that kind of stuff. The
00:05:27 - menu or the configuration file is actually almost always
00:05:31 - stored -- let's open it up and look --
00:05:35 - in the -- not et cetera -- in the boot directory.
00:05:39 - Inside there there's a GRUB directory and there's a file called menu.lst.
00:05:42 - Now it's important to know this file is generally
00:05:47 - where it's kept but in some systems they do a symbolic link to like
00:05:51 - etc/grub.conf or boot/grub.conf. This is generally
00:05:56 - the actual file where it's kept.
00:05:58 - So if we edit this, we see well a bunch of options. Hiddenmenu means
00:06:02 - it doesn't show you the menu by default. Default is actually
00:06:07 - telling which stanza or which group, which one of these stanzas
00:06:12 - down here is the default that it boots to. Now it's important to note
00:06:15 - that zero is the first one. Again, if it said default one that
00:06:20 - would actually boot the second stanza by default. So zero
00:06:23 - is the first stanza. Timeout is how many seconds it gives us
00:06:27 - to pick if we want something other than the default. All these
00:06:29 - can be changed, of course. Now down here we see all these different
00:06:32 - stanzas or boot options. Now what I have, I have a couple
00:06:36 - different versions of the kernel -- every kernel. A new kernel
00:06:41 - would require a new stanza. You'll see this is the version I'm running
00:06:44 - right now, 2.6.28-16, and it's
00:06:48 - created, when I installed, that two stanzas. Now the difference
00:06:53 - between these two, this one is generic, this is the title that
00:06:56 - shows up, and you'll see this is one that says the same thing but
00:06:59 - in recovery mode. The difference is in what flags they put
00:07:03 - at the end of the kernel. So this long kernel which actually
00:07:06 - wraps around, you'll see it specifies the root device
00:07:10 - by the UUID, which we talked about before. But
00:07:13 - it could also just use,
00:07:16 - it could also do something like if you look down here, Windows
00:07:19 - just specifies a hard drive partition. But back up here the root
00:07:23 - partition is there and these are the kernel options in the
00:07:27 - standard boot. Read-only is how it mounts the kernel in the
00:07:31 - kernel file right here. Quiet means it doesn't give
00:07:35 - a whole bunch of text on the screen for us, and splash means
00:07:38 - that it gives us that fancy Ubuntu splash screen, all graphic
00:07:42 - and pretty. Then the init RAM disk is right here. Now
00:07:45 - let's at the second stanza, which is recovery mode is what
00:07:49 - they call it. We learned a few nuggets back that recovery mode and
00:07:53 - run level 1 are generally the same thing. So basically
00:07:56 - this is going to boot into run level 1, and how it does that
00:08:00 - is with the kernel flags. Instead of ro quiet splash,
00:08:04 - it's ro and single. Single is the command that it, you know,
00:08:08 - it's been compiled to boot into single user mode or run level
00:08:12 - 1. So that's the difference between these two stanzas. Now the
00:08:16 - same exact thing for this older kernel that was upgraded. Here
00:08:19 - we have kernel just a different revision, but again all the
00:08:22 - same things are in here single, single user mode, et cetera. Let's scroll
00:08:27 - down a little bit and show you two more things. This memtest86+,
00:08:31 - this is a tiny little, I guess it's a complete
00:08:36 - operating system. But this is in a lot of Linux distributions.
00:08:39 - It's a tiny little operating system that boots up and its sole purpose
00:08:43 - is to test RAM. Very useful if you're questioning your
00:08:46 - RAM or if you have a new server a lot of times it's good to
00:08:48 - run that just to check the memory. So that shows up as a menu
00:08:52 - option and it boots the system strictly right into that. And then
00:08:55 - we've also added this other one -- Windows. And now dual boot systems
00:08:59 - are pretty common. It's important to know that GRUB can boot
00:09:02 - a multitude of operating systems, and this is a very simple
00:09:06 - example of what a stanza booting Windows would look like. Again,
00:09:09 - the title is just an arbitrary thing. We can, you know, anything
00:09:13 - we do here is can name it Windows XP or whatever you want
00:09:17 - to call this, whatever it might be.
00:09:19 - Root is where the partition is that has the Windows install.
00:09:23 - Now Windows generally only has one partition. That's, you know, the
00:09:26 - C drive, if you're a Windows person. And this says hd1,
00:09:31 - which is the generally the second hard drive. Again, that zero, one
00:09:35 - thing we have going, and the first partition. So this would be an
00:09:38 - example if I had Windows on a separate hard drive, the second
00:09:41 - hard drive -- this is what it would look like for the root. And
00:09:43 - then chainloader +1. This is because Windows is a
00:09:47 - little bit finicky and generally it wants its own boot loader. So
00:09:50 - what GRUB does then is it loads the Windows boot loader that's on the master
00:09:55 - boot record or on the first couple, first sector on this particular
00:09:59 - partition. Now there are some other options if Windows won't boot
00:10:02 - quite right, but that's not really the focus of this. This is
00:10:05 - of this, you know, I mean this is LPIC training, this isn't Windows
00:10:08 - training. But this is how you would start Windows. This is a GRUB
00:10:11 - stanza that would do that. A lot of operating systems,
00:10:15 - if they detect Windows, they will automatically add a stanza
00:10:17 - like this to GRUB. It's pretty easy to detect and to add to
00:10:21 - it. So that's what a GRUB thing looks like, and let's say
00:10:26 - we wanted to make changes and stuff. It's always -- now some changes
00:10:29 - require you to reinstall onto the master boot record,
00:10:34 - the MBR; some don't. But let's go ahead and quit this. The way to
00:10:38 - install it onto a master boot record, or let's say you want
00:10:41 - to install it on, you know, a different device like a floppy drive
00:10:44 - or something, what you would do is run the command grub --
00:10:47 - I need to run it as root, though.
00:10:51 - Grub-install and then the device you want to install it on. Now again,
00:10:55 - we -- the device is going to be for our case, it's going to be
00:10:59 - /dev/sda, which is the first SCSI or
00:11:04 - serial ATA drive, so A is the first one. So sda.
00:11:09 - That's hd0, if you were paying attention inside the grub.lst
00:11:14 - command. Anyway, you type that and it's going to
00:11:18 - give you this, what it found here. Installing GRUB to sda
00:11:22 - or hard-drive zero like we just talked about. Installation finished.
00:11:26 - No error reported. This is the contents of the device map, okay.
00:11:30 - What it does is it maps out a file the grub installed in this. You
00:11:33 - don't need to do this. And it found these drives. Now you'll notice it didn't find
00:11:37 - my Windows drive, because quite honestly I don't have Windows on this
00:11:40 - virtual machine. I just made that up so that you would
00:11:42 - see what it would look like. But it would find this other hd1,
00:11:46 - if we had actually had a Windows installed.
00:11:49 - So if any lines are incorrect, fix it and rerun the script 'grub-install'. So it gives
00:11:52 - you feedback to make sure it's all installed properly. We just
00:11:55 - put the GRUB boot loader on the master boot record and it's
00:11:58 - pointing to again, this GRUB boot thing on the root directory in --
00:12:04 - or on the boot directory on that, on that root that we specified
00:12:07 - inside. So it's a little bit confusing, but what you can do
00:12:11 - is play with it. And the scary thing is if you play
00:12:16 - with it, though, you can actually write bad stuff to your master
00:12:19 - boot record and not be able to boot anymore. That's going to bring us
00:12:22 - to the very last step, the last thing I want to show you.
00:12:26 - It's important to understand how master boot records and boot loaders work,
00:12:30 - and the best way to do that is to play around with them. It's
00:12:32 - just a great way to learn. But before you do that, you should
00:12:35 - have a way to
00:12:37 - restore things if it goes bad. So let's clear this screen. What I'm
00:12:40 - going to do is show you how you can back up your master boot record.
00:12:46 - The first thing you want to do is make sure you're backing up
00:12:49 - the right master boot record. Especially if you have several
00:12:52 - hard drives, you're not exactly sure what the name of the
00:12:55 - hard drive is. For example, an IDE drive is going to be generally
00:12:58 - dev/hda, whereas a serial ATA or SCSI
00:13:02 - drive is going to be dev/sda. So run the mount command.
00:13:06 - Just mount and it will show you what is mounted on the system. Now you'll
00:13:10 - see right up here,
00:13:12 - dev/sda partition 1 is mounted on root, all right. So we
00:13:16 - know that our root partition is on SDA, and that's what we're going
00:13:20 - to back up. So that's just, the mount is a nice way to double-check,
00:13:24 - especially if your GRUB command file or your GRUB configuration
00:13:28 - file uses that UUID, that Universally Unique Identifier.
00:13:33 - Sometimes you don't know what kind of drive that's
00:13:35 - pointing to. So looking at and to see what is actually mounted on what device is
00:13:39 - a great way to make sure you're backing up and writing to the
00:13:41 - correct hard drive. So anyway, we know that. Now we're going
00:13:45 - to back it up. Now we're going to use another Linux command
00:13:48 - you may not be familiar with, but it's called dd. And this
00:13:52 - basically just writes sector to sector or sector
00:13:55 - by sector write to whatever you want, to and from. We're going
00:13:58 - to do, I'm going to write this out and then explain what it is. So
00:14:02 - if=/dev/hda
00:14:11 - of=/root/backup.mbr
00:14:17 - bs=512
00:14:22 - count=1.
00:14:26 - So run the command. Ooh, yeah, no such file or directory.
00:14:33 - See what I did? Good thing I checked
00:14:38 - to make sure.
00:14:40 - If you look up here, see I made the mistake I was just teaching you how not to make.
00:14:43 - And I'm actually going to leave this in the video to show you how easy it is to make mistakes.
00:14:46 - But sda is my hard drive, not hda. So the device sda is what I'm going to
00:14:53 - up. So we'll hit Enter. Oh, permission denied. I need to be super
00:14:56 - user to do this.
00:15:00 - Okay, so let's look and see what's happened. First of all, I typed
00:15:03 - the wrong type of hard drive, and I should have not because
00:15:07 - I just showed you how to avoid that. Then I went and I typed the
00:15:09 - correct thing, right. Dd Input file, it considers sda a
00:15:14 - file. So the input file is /dev/sda, that first hard drive is a serial
00:15:20 - ATA drive. OF is output file. I know it looks like if
00:15:25 - and of, but it's output file; equals -- I just put it in a file called,
00:15:29 - in the root directory called backup.mbr, all right. It
00:15:33 - doesn't matter what you name the file or where you put it, as
00:15:35 - long as it's somewhere backed up. BS is block size, okay.
00:15:39 - How big is the actual block size and 512 is the
00:15:43 - size we want for the master boot record. So block size equals
00:15:46 - 512. And count=1. Now we're just going to backup
00:15:51 - one block, that first back up or that first, that first
00:15:56 - sector there, that first master boot record is all we're backing up.
00:15:59 - If we left this off, it would back up the entire hard drive
00:16:03 - to this file called backup.mbr.
00:16:05 - So it's important to put that count there at the end, all right. And then
00:16:08 - of course I wasn't root, so it gave me permission denied, but when I actually was it
00:16:12 - did all the proper commands. It says one record in and one record
00:16:16 - out. 512 bytes copied. So now if we --
00:16:22 - I am going to become root just to clarify things. So now I'm root.
00:16:26 - CD to my home directory. Inside here you're going to see
00:16:31 - a file backup.mbr. So that's a backup. You can copy that to a floppy
00:16:35 - drive somewhere in the network. It's generally safe here on
00:16:38 - the hard drive because we're just going to be messing with
00:16:40 - the master boot record. Okay, now let's say we totally mess up our
00:16:44 - computer, we've written like an image file to the boot record
00:16:48 - instead of this backed up MBR file. What you can
00:16:50 - do is do it backwards. Okay, now I'm not, or I'm root now so I don't need to
00:16:54 - type pseudo, but we'll use that same dd command. So dd, but
00:16:59 - this time the input file is going to be
00:17:03 - this file that we're in here, backup.mbr and our output
00:17:08 - file is going to be /dev/sda. Again, that sda
00:17:13 - is the hard drive that we're booting from. Block size equals
00:17:18 - 512, count=1.
00:17:22 - Do this, it's going to copy right to our boot directory, or right to
00:17:27 - our master boot record on our initial hard drive. Now since playing
00:17:31 - with the master boot record is really about the easiest way
00:17:35 - to learn how to do it, playing with GRUB, I would suggest
00:17:38 - now that you know how to back it up and you can restore it,
00:17:40 - to play with it to learn it a little bit better. Now you can restore
00:17:43 - the master boot record from a live booted
00:17:45 - CD or like from a live booted floppy. As long as you know which
00:17:49 - hard drive you're writing to and where the file is kept, it's
00:17:52 - not difficult to fix whatever you might mess up in your
00:17:55 - master boot record. All right, so let's go back over, make sure
00:17:58 - we covered everything, and then we'll move on to the next nugget.
00:18:02 - Okay, so we covered LILO. Again, just a little bit just so
00:18:05 - the you know how to manage things if you come up to it. And
00:18:08 - realize that it writes everything to the master boot record,
00:18:11 - all right. We can back up a LILO boot record the same way that we
00:18:14 - did the GRUB record.
00:18:16 - GRUB is the most largely used
00:18:20 - boot loader. It's the Grand Unified Bootloader. And we showed how to
00:18:24 - do that, how to set up stanzas, how to boot multiple operating systems
00:18:27 - with it. And then very important, I showed you how to back
00:18:31 - up your master boot record. When we did that, we learned a couple
00:18:34 - commands. We learned the dd command, which is really, really
00:18:38 - important; and showed you the mount command. And when you run
00:18:43 - mount with no flags or nothing at the end, mount just shows you what's
00:18:47 - currently mounted. So that's a great way to make sure that
00:18:49 - you're backing up and restoring to the proper hard drive. All right,
00:18:53 - so you are now experts on installing boot loaders and with special
00:18:58 - focus on GRUB because the LPIC requirements specifically
00:19:01 - mention GRUB as the boot loader that you should be comfortable
00:19:04 - configuring. Okay, I hope this has been informative for you and
00:19:08 - I would like to thank you for viewing.

Manage Shared Libraries

Debian Package Management

RPM & YUM Package Management

Work on the Command Line

Process Text Streams Using Filters

Perform Basic File Management

Use Streams, Pipes, and Redirects

Create, Monitor, and Kill Processes

Process Priorities

Search Text Files with Regular Expressions

Perform Basic File Editing Operations Using vi

Create Partitions and Filesystems

Maintain the Integrity of Filesystems

Control Mounting and Unmounting of Filesystems

Manage Disk Quotas

Manage File Permissions and Ownership

Create and Change Hard and Symbolic Links

Find System Files and Place Files in the Correct Location

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Shawn Powers

Shawn Powers

CBT Nuggets Trainer

LPIC-1; CompTIA Linux+, A+; Cisco CCNA

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