CompTIA Project+ PK0-003

Project Delivery Management

by Steve Caseley

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What is Project Management

Project+ and how to prepare for the exam

Pre-Project Setup

Project Planning

Prepare Scope Statement

Create WBS and WBS Dictionary

Define Change Management Process

Develop Project Schedule and Resources and Roles

PERT/GANTT/CPM and Schedule Compression

Communications Management Plan

Risk Management Plan

Quality Management Plan

Cost Management Plan

Procurement Management Plan

Transition and Project Management Plan

Human Resource Management

Project Governance

Project Tracking

Project Change Management

Project Risk Management

Project Quality Management

Project Delivery Management

00:00:00 - This nugget in 4.0 change control and communications is focused
00:00:05 - on 4.4 project leveling techniques and 4.6 project control techniques.
00:00:13 - The official term from CompTIA is 4.4
00:00:17 - given a scenario execute appropriate resource leveling techniques
00:00:22 - and 4.6,
00:00:24 - identify potential tools to us where a project deliverable is
00:00:28 - out of specification is defined in the quality baseline. I have
00:00:32 - mostly combined these together
00:00:35 - and added a few more topics that I am going to loosely call project
00:00:41 - delivery management
00:00:47 - and I have used the word loosely a couple of times as in this
00:00:50 - introduction. This nugget has focused on a few remaining project
00:00:56 - delivery management techniques that are appropriate when we are
00:01:01 - in the change control and communications aspect of our project
00:01:05 - that aren't necessarily covered in these other CompTIA related
00:01:12 - chapters for your exam.
00:01:15 - So effectively to pass the exam, but the focus will be on the
00:01:20 - two sections of 4.4, the project leveling techniques and 4.6
00:01:25 - the project control techniques, but there is a few more general
00:01:29 - project delivery management techniques that I feel you should
00:01:34 - have as part of your overall project management tool kit to be
00:01:39 - a successful project manager to successfully deliver projects
00:01:43 - that may or may not be specifically called out in you project
00:01:48 - plus certification exam. As
00:01:51 - I said in the introduction, project delivery management is a
00:01:54 - loose amalgamation a number of other topics that I feel are very
00:01:58 - important to discuss to round out our project management toolkit
00:02:03 - and I loosely combine these into project delivery management
00:02:07 - and quality improvement. Within delivery management we are going
00:02:12 - to discuss, what is required to gather the information we need
00:02:17 - as project managers to be successful once we have all of the
00:02:20 - information gathered to give us a current picture of our project?
00:02:25 - We will probably most likely need to do some replanting of our
00:02:29 - project. Projects never go exactly as originally planned so there
00:02:33 - will be some re-planning necessary and we will talk about specific
00:02:38 - replanting techniques and that is the 4.4 segment of your CompTIA
00:02:43 - certification exam and we will talk about a few techniques that
00:02:47 - I believe are important to optimize your team performance to
00:02:52 - insure we have a well oiled team properly motivated and moving
00:02:57 - towards overall project successful delivery. And
00:03:01 - we will talk about some quality improvement techniques and that
00:03:04 - is the 4.6 techniques specifically referenced in your CompTIA
00:03:09 - exam and as we delve into the first topic in this nugget you
00:03:14 - all realize that there is some degree of overlap with the principles
00:03:18 - already discussed in other nuggets. I am not going to repeat
00:03:23 - principles discussed in other nuggets, but specifically call
00:03:26 - out the attention. The specific components of aspects of what
00:03:33 - happens in teen status reports, what happens in risk management
00:03:37 - necessary for the information gathering as part of project delivery
00:03:41 - management so with that said what do we get from a team status
00:03:46 - report that we need for overall delivery management? Well, frankly,
00:03:52 - we get the status.
00:03:54 - We get their actuals
00:03:58 - and we get their ETC's and as we have already discussed in this
00:04:02 - series we take those facts. We plug it into our Microsoft project
00:04:07 - plan and we determine whether or not our project is on schedule
00:04:11 - or not. If it is not on schedule that leads us to a further discussion
00:04:16 - in this nugget about planning. As a result of doing risk management
00:04:23 - we determine our new risks
00:04:27 - being identified.
00:04:31 - Are we using a avoiding strategy?
00:04:38 - Are we using a transfer strategy? If we are using an avoid or
00:04:42 - transfer strategy again that leads into re-planning
00:04:48 - later in the series or as a result of risk management have we
00:04:52 - discovered that we need to apply contingency? Have we discovered
00:04:56 - that we have run out of contingency and now we need again to
00:04:59 - re-plan our project to deal with the new facts that we have associated
00:05:04 - with risk management? Similar
00:05:06 - discussion on issue management as a way of identifying new issues,
00:05:10 - do we need to adjust our project plan as part of delivery management
00:05:16 - to re-plan.
00:05:18 - Schedule on management, we have really talked about already.
00:05:21 - We take our status, our actuals from our team members, from our
00:05:25 - team member status reports. We plug it in to our project schedule
00:05:29 - and we assess.
00:05:32 - Are we on schedule?
00:05:36 - Are we behind schedule?
00:05:40 - Are we ahead of schedule?
00:05:44 - And again, based on what we find out from schedule management,
00:05:48 - we will need to take appropriate actions as part of delivery
00:05:51 - management to deal with those facts and same basic principles
00:05:58 - applies for budget management as a result of gathering the actuals
00:06:02 - from our finance department as our project tracking on budget
00:06:06 - do we need to take corrective actions. So information gathering
00:06:10 - is all about gathering the facts,
00:06:14 - the current situation
00:06:18 - and then taking
00:06:21 - the management decisions to the project management
00:06:28 - to deal with
00:06:32 - the new situation
00:06:37 - and the new situation being is my project on schedule, do I need
00:06:42 - to re-plan, do I need to make team adjustments, do I need to,
00:06:46 - do I need, do I need to?
00:06:49 - And one of the most common things we are going to do as a result
00:06:52 - of gathering the facts doing the information gathering, finding
00:06:55 - out what our current project delivery situation is re-planned
00:07:00 - and is already discussed, we are going to adjust the plan based
00:07:04 - on the facts. The plan may be the schedule,
00:07:09 - the plan may be the budget,
00:07:12 - the plan may be the team,
00:07:16 - the plan may be procurement
00:07:21 - but we are going to adjust the plan based on the new facts that
00:07:26 - we have as a result of understanding exactly where we are this
00:07:32 - week in the project. A significant part of re-planning is typically
00:07:37 - reassigning the resources and the tasks as a result of gathering
00:07:41 - the actuals from the project team, we understand that resource
00:07:45 - one is having challenges
00:07:50 - and is late
00:07:52 - on his or her tasks. Resource 2 is a seasoned pro,
00:07:59 - resource 2 is that insurance policy that we kept around to make
00:08:02 - sure that we had the seasoned pro on our project is smiling
00:08:09 - and is ahead
00:08:13 - so we get into re-planning we reassign resources. We will take
00:08:19 - some of the harder work
00:08:23 - from resource 1 and we all assign it to resource 2 by taking
00:08:27 - work away from resource 1 hopefully we can deal with the late
00:08:31 - and bring back on schedule
00:08:35 - and not that we necessarily want to burry poor old resource 2
00:08:39 - but resource 2 is that seasoned pro. We can give them more work
00:08:43 - and bring them to schedule that at least they are not ahead of
00:08:47 - schedule. We may need to provide some additional support
00:08:55 - for resource number one. Maybe some coaching, maybe in addition
00:08:59 - to reassigning work, we are going to assign resource 2 to also
00:09:03 - be the coach to look over their shoulder to institute the concept
00:09:07 - of a pair programming but to find some way to deal with the challenges
00:09:12 - that resource 1 is going to have on the project by reassigning,
00:09:17 - by coaching, by training, by education etcetera, etcetera, but
00:09:21 - we are going to adjust the plan, the schedule, the budget, more
00:09:27 - dollars for training,
00:09:29 - the team, the procurement and so on to adjust. Part of it sometimes
00:09:36 - is simply rescheduling. It is not a matter of resource one being
00:09:40 - late resource. Two is also late resource. Three, the whole team
00:09:45 - is late.
00:09:48 - The estimates were bad, the technology challenges are higher.
00:09:51 - They are going to be. We need to go through and do our root cause
00:09:54 - analysis and we will look at some of the techniques for a root
00:09:57 - cause analysis later in this nugget when we are looking at the
00:10:00 - quality principles, but maybe we just have to re-schedule and
00:10:04 - say, "Milestone
00:10:08 - slips. It is no longer June 15. It is now 30 and the project
00:10:16 - end date
00:10:19 - is no longer September 30th. It is now October
00:10:24 - 29th." Noting that I made a larger jump in my schedule adjustment
00:10:30 - between the current milestone where you only adjust it for 15
00:10:35 - days and my overall project adjustment adjusting for almost a
00:10:40 - month, 29 days recognizing that
00:10:45 - prior experience
00:10:48 - I am slipping. My entire team is having challenges probably
00:10:52 - suggest that I need to slip my overall schedule by morning just
00:10:57 - the current 15 days that I am going to experience slippage that
00:11:00 - I will have additional slippage on the project and that is a
00:11:04 - principle called earned value management that we will discuss
00:11:07 - in the next nugget in the series,
00:11:11 - we will re-plan, we will adjust, we will continually adjust the
00:11:16 - plan based on the facts at hand. And
00:11:21 - now moving back to specifics for your CompTIA exam re-planning
00:11:25 - techniques, we have discussed these quickly already in the planning
00:11:30 - aspect where we discussed understanding what our critical path
00:11:34 - in our project is going to be and we examine that techniques
00:11:38 - such as fast tracking, crashing, delaying and optimizing only
00:11:43 - have true effect on your project if done on a critical
00:11:48 - path task.
00:11:52 - But now that we are in project delivery management and we have
00:11:56 - discovered that we have a project issue. The project is running
00:12:00 - late, we need to find a way to bring it back on track. We have
00:12:05 - looked at doing some of the principles. We have already talked
00:12:07 - about simply saying, "Oh resource 2 is ahead of schedule. Resource
00:12:11 - 1 is behind schedule." Let's reassign some of the work from
00:12:15 - one resource to the other work from one resource to the other.
00:12:17 - We have explored all of the easy options to bring the project
00:12:21 - back on track and we have discovered that we are still not going
00:12:24 - to meet our deadlines. We want to do our best to insure that
00:12:29 - we meet our project deadline so we start to look at these re-planning
00:12:33 - techniques and again you can expect to see discussion on these
00:12:36 - re-planning techniques in your exam itself.
00:12:41 - Recognizing that these techniques were only truly impact improve
00:12:46 - your milestone performance. Your project end date if they are
00:12:50 - applied to critical path tasks because they are the task that
00:12:54 - are determining your project end date so we examine can we fast
00:12:58 - track? And what is fast tracking? It is doing
00:13:03 - more work
00:13:07 - in parallel. So
00:13:10 - previously you said A, is a predecessor to B, which is the predecessor
00:13:16 - to C. In the calm and quiet of planning we determine that we
00:13:20 - need to execute the project serially and as result of doing the
00:13:24 - serial execution our end date is now delayed because A, it took
00:13:30 - longer. We have no option to reduce the size of A, B, or C so
00:13:38 - we are simply saying is B truly dependent on A, is C truly dependent
00:13:44 - on B and maybe and this is absolutely a maybe, maybe in fact,
00:13:50 - yes, we can remove one of those dependencies and say that A will
00:13:57 - spawn B and we are also spawn C which will move C back in the
00:14:02 - schedule and potentially allow us to complete the project on
00:14:07 - time. Now is there a risk in doing work in parallel that we
00:14:12 - had previously considered to be required to be serial. Again,
00:14:17 - that is a decision that we are going to have to be made by the
00:14:19 - project manager at the time we are trying to do a re-plan. In
00:14:26 - the common quiet of planning and in the absence of better project
00:14:30 - facts, I believed a serial ABC execution is what made sense.
00:14:36 - Now that I am in the middle of delivery I have a lot of confidence
00:14:41 - that you know A or B and C can be executed
00:14:45 - in parallel. I now know that the dependency that I thought existed
00:14:49 - has gone away or is an artificial dependency or, or. So I have
00:14:55 - better facts
00:14:59 - and I may well be able to fast track some of my critical path
00:15:05 - tasks and in fact improve my project schedule.
00:15:09 - Or potentially I can crash. What is crashing?
00:15:13 - Adding more resources.
00:15:21 - Previously A was a sign to resource number one and resource number
00:15:27 - one only.
00:15:29 - I now made to speed up my project. I need to improve my project
00:15:33 - milestones maybe I can add another resource to A and have the
00:15:40 - two of them both working on the final deliverable for a task
00:15:44 - number A. Maybe it works, maybe it doesn't work. Each individual
00:15:50 - scenario, each individual task in your work break end structure
00:15:55 - that is on your critical path needs to be examined as part of
00:15:59 - these re-planning techniques to say, "Can I fast track it? Can
00:16:03 - I do more work in parallel? Can I crash it? Can I add more resources?" And
00:16:09 - often you have better facts at hand to allow you to make those
00:16:14 - decisions with confidence without introducing risk to the project.
00:16:20 - Other techniques may be I am going to say as simple as delaying
00:16:27 - is be critical
00:16:31 - is it absolutely mandatory that task be gets completed prior
00:16:37 - to project completion or is be a nice to have. Yes, ideally it
00:16:45 - would be nice to have be completed before the system goes live,
00:16:49 - but you know what? I can delay B. I can let tasks A and C complete
00:16:56 - and allow my system to go live. I can delay B and I can do that
00:17:01 - in phase 2 so delaying is the out and out removal
00:17:08 - of some component of the original scope some component of your
00:17:12 - original breakdown structure that says, "Yeah it is nice to have,
00:17:17 - it is a desirable when push comes to shove" and we are pushing
00:17:21 - and shoving pretty hard right now to keep our project on track. We
00:17:24 - may be able to negotiate with the business that B is optional
00:17:28 - and can be the third delayed until phase 2 or sometimes it can
00:17:34 - be an out and out removed that the business environment has changed
00:17:37 - and says, "Yeah,
00:17:39 - ideally I wanted I, but I can adjust my process, my sales volume
00:17:43 - in that particular line of business that are not what they expected
00:17:46 - yeah we can remove it." Or maybe we can optimize and to me optimizing
00:17:53 - is a form of crashing,
00:17:56 - crashing in its pure sense means adding a hewn
00:18:01 - resource to the task to get it done faster, optimizing is adding
00:18:07 - better tools,
00:18:11 - better processes
00:18:14 - doing something better. To me a tool, a process is the equivalent
00:18:21 - of adding a resource by removing the name human so you will see
00:18:26 - in some textbooks that concept of optimization not specifically
00:18:30 - called out and simply combined into the crashing which is the
00:18:34 - adding of additional resources human or otherwise. But
00:18:40 - these are specific re-planning techniques that we will need to
00:18:43 - bring into play routinely during project delivery when the facts
00:18:49 - have told us that our project is running late and these are absolutely
00:18:53 - re-planning techniques that you an expect to see discussed in
00:18:56 - your CompTIA certification exam. Other project delivery considerations
00:19:02 - are delivery management considerations is performance optimization.
00:19:05 - We have already had a nugget focused specifically on team performance
00:19:10 - human resource management, just a few more techniques that I
00:19:13 - would like to throw there to help you insure that you are optimizing
00:19:17 - your team's performance, that you are having your appropriate
00:19:20 - recognition programs in place as part of overall performance
00:19:25 - optimization. So let's first look at optimizing team performance.
00:19:30 - An optimizing team performance is all about making sure you have
00:19:33 - the right person doing the right job and remember we touched
00:19:37 - a bit of this already in this nugget of matching the skills to
00:19:41 - the task. We have resource one struggling on some of his or her
00:19:47 - assignments and resource to the seasoned pro breezing its way
00:19:52 - through the assignment so we may have had a mismatch of the skills
00:19:56 - to the tasks as part of the original plan and by reassigning
00:20:01 - work between our resources based on the new found information
00:20:04 - we have about their skills and their ability to perform we can
00:20:09 - optimize our team performance and keep everybody motivated. In
00:20:13 - the current situation R1 isn't motivated because here she is
00:20:17 - stressed because they know they are late and R2 probably isn't
00:20:22 - motivated because everybody likes to get a challenge at work
00:20:25 - and right now they are breezing through their work in such a
00:20:27 - fast pace they are probably not challenged. So we can absolutely
00:20:32 - optimized our team performance by doing a better match of skills
00:20:35 - to the task. We can do a better match of the performance to the
00:20:39 - schedule, same concept, maybe R1 had the right skills but it
00:20:45 - is just a little junior and R2 is the seasoned pro so again same
00:20:51 - principle, but for a different reason we are going to match the
00:20:55 - performance of R2. R2 can simply turn out more work in a day
00:21:00 - because they have better work ethics, they have better work techniques.
00:21:04 - They have doing this longer. They have more t-shirts and more
00:21:08 - scarves. So again by increasing their work load we can optimize
00:21:13 - the schedule and I know we have already discussed this in the
00:21:16 - previous nugget is match the expectations to the opportunity.
00:21:20 - Is our R2 motivated? Are they the seasoned Pro, do they understand
00:21:25 - that they have been brought on to this project potentially to
00:21:28 - do some things that are old had to them routine because they
00:21:32 - are the seasoned pro and we have to insure they understand their
00:21:37 - critical role they are playing on the project. We have to insure
00:21:40 - that there expectations are being achieved that their ego is
00:21:44 - being fed so to speak and that they know they will get the appropriate
00:21:49 - recognition for their performance based on our current project
00:21:54 - expectations. And the final aspect of good team optimization
00:21:59 - is I am sure any of the appropriate recognition programs in place,
00:22:03 - that when an individual on your team
00:22:07 - achieves something special, we recognize the individual and when
00:22:11 - the team achieves a specific milestone does something special
00:22:16 - even if it doesn't result in the achieving of a milestone that
00:22:20 - we have the appropriate recognition programs in place. They can
00:22:23 - be small.
00:22:25 - They can be cost
00:22:29 - effective. I wanted to use the word cheap, but I will use the
00:22:34 - word cost effective because it is more kind likely correct. They
00:22:37 - do not have to be big elaborate things but it is all about catching
00:22:41 - somebody doing something right and recognizing that they did
00:22:45 - something right. And
00:22:48 - in the process of catching somebody doing something right and
00:22:51 - recognizing they did something right it needs to match the personality
00:22:55 - profile. If you catch an introvert doing something right the
00:23:00 - last thing you want to do is say, "Excuse me everyone in the
00:23:05 - room please turn around and listen to me. I want you to recognize
00:23:09 - that this poor little introvert here has done a terrific job
00:23:14 - and I want you to all stand up and clap for this introvert."
00:23:18 - That is the wrong motivational approach for an introvert because
00:23:21 - that is actually going to de-motivate an introvert because they
00:23:24 - don't like being on stage, they don't like the recognition, they
00:23:28 - like to be a shadow
00:23:30 - so if you catch an introvert doing something special walk by
00:23:34 - their desk
00:23:36 - and say thank you that was wonderful and say thank you very quietly
00:23:42 - so no one else knows that you recognize him so they aren't de-motivated
00:23:47 - by the public recognition, but they still get that heart felt
00:23:51 - thank you from the project manager for doing something good. And
00:23:56 - when you catch an extrovert doing something good it may not be
00:23:59 - as elaborate as saying could, "I have everyone's attention please."
00:24:02 - But you make it a little more visible because the extrovert does
00:24:06 - want some public recognition
00:24:09 - and there in I just laid out another problem for effective recognition
00:24:13 - programs is if you recognize an introvert privately and you recognize
00:24:19 - an extrovert publicly there is going to be others in the project
00:24:23 - who are going to sense there has been some form of an inequity
00:24:27 - delivered because they don't perceive that the introvert has
00:24:31 - been recognized so again we need to find effective ways to recognize
00:24:38 - team and individual but specifically individual performance that
00:24:42 - needs the personality profiles of those individuals without becoming
00:24:47 - issues in the larger team
00:24:51 - and kind of directly related to that as you are doing overall
00:24:55 - recognition programs whether it is individual or team recognition
00:24:59 - programs it has to be something that is recognized by the entire
00:25:03 - team. Whether you are dealing with your introvert or extrovert
00:25:07 - personality profiles up here or you are trying to do a recognition
00:25:11 - program at the team level.
00:25:14 - If you have a team that is widely distributed across multiple
00:25:20 - geographies it is going to be hard to have a team lunch or a
00:25:24 - team supper. Or if you have a team that is centrally located
00:25:28 - but they all are in various stages of life i.e. some are single
00:25:33 - bar goers, some are newly married building family and some are
00:25:38 - more mature and watching their family disappear. They are going
00:25:43 - to have different senses of team motivational. Some would like
00:25:46 - to go out in the evening to have supper and maybe a beverage
00:25:51 - or two. Going to work for the single bar singing people may not
00:25:55 - work for the grown family and may not work for the more mature
00:25:58 - individuals. Team lunches may work for a larger segment of the
00:26:03 - team but then again you need to carefully select the style of
00:26:07 - restaurant that you are going to use. Do you have vegetarians?
00:26:10 - Do you have different ethnical backgrounds that have different
00:26:14 - food preference and so on and so on? So often in can be very
00:26:18 - challenging to find effective recognition programs that work
00:26:22 - for the individual and for the team but it is our job as project
00:26:26 - managers to find those recognition programs they can be small,
00:26:30 - they can be very cost effective, they can be as simple as a stop
00:26:34 - by the desk with a heart felt thank you but find a way to keep
00:26:38 - your team motivated, to keep your team performing and that will
00:26:42 - help you eliminate some of these group planning challenges that
00:26:45 - we have as part of overall project delivery management. And
00:26:49 - our final discussion point in this nugget is quality improvement
00:26:53 - processes where we are going to use Pareto charts, controlled
00:26:56 - charts, scatter diagrams, fishbone diagrams, flow charts etcetera,
00:27:00 - etcetera to deal with quality issues that have been identified
00:27:05 - and we have already introduced these principles these charts
00:27:08 - and diagrams in the last nugget so at this point I am simply
00:27:12 - going to row a rate into very brief discussion of each of these
00:27:17 - quality improvement techniques and where or how they might be
00:27:21 - used as part of overall quality improvement processes and part
00:27:25 - of overall project delivery management and how they can be used
00:27:31 - to improve project delivery challenges. Pareto
00:27:36 - charts are most effectively used when you can categorize your
00:27:40 - project challenges into specific categories.
00:27:44 - So we were able to identify that we have a number of root causes
00:27:49 - for our project delivery challenges and I have simply summarized
00:27:52 - them as root cause number one, cause number two, cause number
00:27:56 - three, four and five and we are able to measure the number of
00:28:00 - occurrences of each of the problems so when we identify our causes
00:28:05 - and our measurement, it becomes very obvious, by putting it into
00:28:09 - a Pareto chart that if we were to
00:28:12 - focus all of our project delivery management correction activities,
00:28:16 - all of our quality improvement activities on cause one and cause
00:28:22 - two we are going to deal with you know
00:28:27 - the majority of all of our project problems. The Pareto chart
00:28:30 - is all about applying 80-20 rule. Now we are going to apply 80%
00:28:37 - of our effort
00:28:39 - on the 20% of the problems.
00:28:42 - These two that are going to cause us the maximum benefit on our
00:28:48 - project so by using a Pareto Chart if we can identify
00:28:53 - causes and measure the occurrences, we can very, very quickly
00:28:58 - understand which are the ones that we need to focus on.
00:29:02 - Control charts are most effectively used when we can measure,
00:29:06 - performance on our project.
00:29:09 - I have got it listed as a quality measurement here. It may be
00:29:12 - actual performance on the project as well, a number of modulars
00:29:17 - or modules where the effort to complete was greater than
00:29:23 - planned and modules where the effort to complete was less than
00:29:26 - planned. So we do specific measurements across their project
00:29:30 - and we chart them and we provide very specific upper control
00:29:34 - limits and lower control limits and that is the secret to the
00:29:38 - control chart is we have said any estimate variation that is
00:29:43 - greater than 10% over the baseline, the norm is a problem and
00:29:50 - any development estimates that are less than 10% under the norm
00:29:56 - is also a problem that may suggestion A we are not applying the
00:30:00 - perfect quality techniques that we are not doing the appropriate
00:30:02 - peer reviews that our unit testing is not adequate enough and
00:30:06 - so on. As
00:30:08 - we use control charts there are two things we need to keep in
00:30:11 - mind, one is any time we exceed or upper control limit such as
00:30:18 - right here it is a problem.
00:30:22 - Red lights and sirens should go off and it says we have now exceeded
00:30:26 - our threshold, we need to take immediate action to bring this
00:30:32 - deviation back in line or similarly if we ever had an execution
00:30:37 - that exceeded our lower control limit again. The red lights,
00:30:41 - alarms go off, we need to take immediate action to deal with
00:30:45 - this problem and often in control chart we use the concept of
00:30:49 - a line of seven or a group of seven so we have one, two, three,
00:30:54 - four, five, six, seven
00:30:57 - are occurrences where we have a trend. Now
00:31:03 - in this particular instance we allowed our project to continue
00:31:08 - and our trend quickly corrected our self, but as soon as we see
00:31:12 - trend and again it is typically a run of seven
00:31:17 - seems to be the norm and most publication that says if you have
00:31:20 - a run of 7 or more, again, we have a problem
00:31:25 - we need to start to take corrective actions.
00:31:28 - Control charts where you can do very specific measurements where
00:31:33 - you can apply thresholds
00:31:35 - and where you can measure performance against thresholds will
00:31:38 - allow you again to proactively measure your project delivery
00:31:42 - or your quality on your project and initiate corrective actions
00:31:48 - early as opposed to later. A scattered diagram is very similar
00:31:53 - to a control chart whereby we are doing quality measures or delivery
00:31:58 - measures. Typically, the difference between a scattered diagram
00:32:02 - and a controlled chart is a control chart has very specific identified
00:32:08 - points where you are doing measurements i.e some sort of sampling
00:32:12 - where a scattered diagram is typically meant more for live measurements
00:32:16 - all instances.
00:32:20 - And again you could apply the principles of upper limits and
00:32:25 - lower limits on our scattered diagram but because they are more
00:32:29 - random based often doing the limits has less value. Typically
00:32:34 - what we are looking for with the scattered diagram is some sort
00:32:37 - of trend and we are seeing that the majority of our instances,
00:32:42 - the majority of our measurements are happening in this period,
00:32:46 - this norm on our project right here and then we can say this
00:32:52 - is acceptable. Anything within these two and I am going to use
00:32:56 - the word imaginary lines or deemed to be acceptable for our project.
00:33:00 - And these guys that are outside of our norm again are instances
00:33:05 - where we need to start to consider to do additional project delivery
00:33:12 - management action because we may have situations that need to
00:33:16 - be acted upon. If we have lots of these outside the norm we
00:33:20 - absolutely need to take out action and if we only have a few
00:33:24 - and if you look at the lower side there is far less occurrences
00:33:28 - than on the upper side so if we were to take project delivery
00:33:31 - management actions, quality improvement actions, we would tend
00:33:35 - to take our actions where the more
00:33:39 - dense population outside the norm is located. Our next two quality
00:33:44 - improvement process is the fishbone diagram and the flow charts
00:33:47 - have a different
00:33:50 - practical application on our project. The previous ones we discussed
00:33:53 - are all about tracking the actuals and identifying trends, identifying
00:33:58 - quality, delivery deviation cinemas we acted upon the fishbone
00:34:03 - diagram and the flow chart are actually used after we have identified
00:34:08 - a delivery equality challenge to develop the corrective action.
00:34:13 - So with the fishbone diagram we have a quality issue. It may
00:34:17 - have been identified through one of the Pareto chart, the control
00:34:20 - chart or the scattered diagram or may have simply been identified
00:34:24 - to us as part of a project status report and as part of standard
00:34:28 - project delivery management, but we have a quality issue, we
00:34:31 - have a deliveyr issue that we need to fix. It
00:34:36 - is called a fishbone diagram because you draw a straight line
00:34:39 - through and that is our foundation for our quality issue and
00:34:44 - then we begin to identify, well that quality issue could have
00:34:47 - been caused by cause number 1 and on another branch is by cause
00:34:52 - number 2 and cause number 3 and cause number 4 and if you start
00:34:57 - to draw enough of these causes off of the backbone
00:35:02 - hopefully you get the concept the wide skull, the fishbone diagram
00:35:06 - because it begins to look like the backbone of a fish. It is
00:35:10 - a graphical representation. We
00:35:12 - identify the causes. We may identify sub causes and once we have
00:35:19 - all of the causes identified then we look for solutions
00:35:25 - and again through a Pareto diagram we may be able to focus our
00:35:29 - attention on cause 1 and cause 2 and look for solutions to those
00:35:34 - applying the 20-80 rule, but with the fishbone diagram we have
00:35:39 - the quality delivery issue, we identify the causes and we look
00:35:44 - for solutions. And
00:35:46 - our final diagram in this section is the flow chart. The flow
00:35:50 - chart is also focused on unidentified quality issue and we begin
00:35:55 - to chart the flow, the processes,
00:35:59 - the steps,
00:36:01 - the occurrences
00:36:05 - that are related to this quality issue. So we have identified
00:36:09 - this quality issue is the direct result of step number 1 process.
00:36:13 - Number 1 being executed, which leads to step number 2, which
00:36:18 - leads us to a decision point
00:36:21 - and based on the decision of, yes, will allow us to execute step
00:36:26 - number 4, which may solve the problem and the solution will then
00:36:31 - resolve our quality issue or if it is a no path it is going to
00:36:36 - lead us to the process number 3, which may also lead to a solution
00:36:41 - or it may in fact have no solution
00:36:45 - that is possible within the confines of the project in which
00:36:49 - case we need to trace our way back to the flow chart. Look at
00:36:53 - the process step occurrence number 2 and eliminate
00:36:59 - the possibility
00:37:04 - of a no answer
00:37:08 - i.e. change process step occurrence number 2 so that the occurrence
00:37:13 - the output can never be a no which eliminates this path altogether
00:37:18 - which again hopefully satisfies, removes our quality, our delivery
00:37:23 - challenge issue. This
00:37:26 - nugget was focused on project delivery management sort of a mish
00:37:30 - mash amalgamation of a number of project management techniques
00:37:34 - that we need to apply as part of overall delivery management
00:37:38 - that need to be in our project manager's toolkit. Our first focus
00:37:42 - was on delivery management identifying what facts
00:37:48 - we need to understand
00:37:52 - our current situation.
00:37:57 - Are we on schedule? Are we not on schedule? Are we on budget?
00:38:01 - Are we not on budget? We got team performance problems or do
00:38:04 - we not have team performance problems lead us into re-planning.
00:38:09 - What can we do to keep this project, to bring this project to
00:38:14 - resolve the project, to whatever it is to keep the project delivering
00:38:19 - to the planned schedule to the planned budget? We discussed
00:38:23 - specific re-planning techniques that are going to be part of
00:38:26 - the CompTIA exam 4.4. We looked at fast tracking trying to do
00:38:32 - more work in parallel. We looked at crashing trying to add more
00:38:37 - resources either human or tools often called optimization and
00:38:42 - we looked at deferring project components that may be considered
00:38:47 - to be optional and either eliminating them from our delivery
00:38:51 - all together or deferring them to a later phase allowing us to
00:38:55 - achieve our original project targets.
00:38:59 - We looked at performance optimization to insure our team is performing. We
00:39:07 - looked at recognition programs
00:39:11 - to try to keep our team performing and finally we looked at a
00:39:15 - number of quality improvement initiatives, Pareto charts, control
00:39:19 - charts, scattered diagrams to help us recognize why delivery
00:39:24 - challenges, why quality problems are happening in the first place
00:39:29 - and a couple of techniques like fishbone diagramming and flow
00:39:33 - charting to help us understand why these problems are happening
00:39:37 - and to help us understand or develop solutions to the project
00:39:43 - delivery challenges. This
00:39:45 - concludes our nugget on project delivery management. I hope this
00:39:49 - module has been informative for you and thank you very much for viewing.

Earned Value Management

Project Communication Management

Project Closure

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Steve Caseley

Steve Caseley

CBT Nuggets Trainer


Area Of Expertise:
Project Management, MS Project, Development Methodologies, Agile Development

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