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Cisco CCNP TSHOOT 642-832

General TSHOOT: Troubleshooting Before You're Treading Water - Proactive Steps

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Video Titles Duration
1. TSHOOT: Setting Your Expectations
2. General TSHOOT: The Troubleshooting State of Mind
3. General TSHOOT: Troubleshooting Before You're Treading Water - Proactive Steps
4. General TSHOOT: Troubleshooting Before You're Treading Water - Proactive Steps, Part 2
5. General TSHOOT: IOS Tools to Monitor and Maintain the Network
6. General TSHOOT: IOS Tools to Monitor and Maintain the Network, Part 2
7. Switch TSHOOT: VLANs and Spanning Tree Concept Review
8. Switch TSHOOT: VLANs and Spanning Tree
9. Switch TSHOOT: VLANs and Spanning Tree, Part 2
10. Switch TSHOOT: L3 Switching and Redundancy Protocols Concept Review
11. Switch TSHOOT: L3 Switching and Redundancy Protocols
12. Switch TSHOOT: L3 Switching and Redundancy Protocols, Part 2
13. Route TSHOOT: L3 Connectivity and EIGRP Concept Review
14. Route TSHOOT: L3 Connectivity and EIGRP
15. Route TSHOOT: L3 Connectivity and EIGRP, Part 2
16. Route TSHOOT: L3 Connectivity and EIGRP, Part 3
17. Route TSHOOT: OSPF and Route Redistribution Concept Review
18. Route TSHOOT: OSPF and Route Redistribution
19. Route TSHOOT: OSPF and Route Redistribution, Part 2
20. Route TSHOOT: BGP Concept Review
21. Route TSHOOT: BGP
22. Route TSHOOT: Router Performance Issues Concept Review
23. Route TSHOOT: Router Performance Issues
24. Security TSHOOT: Access List Concept Review
25. Security TSHOOT: Access List Chaos
26. IPv6 TSHOOT: IPv6 and IPv6 Routing Protocols

TSHOOT: Setting Your Expectations

General TSHOOT: The Troubleshooting State of Mind

General TSHOOT: Troubleshooting Before You're Treading Water - Proactive Steps

00:00:00 - Troubleshooting before you're treading water some proactive steps
00:00:05 - well think of this nugget as a continuation of the previous one
00:00:09 - where you might have been looking at some of those network maintenance
00:00:11 - strategies I had laid out and said "Okay, it's good, it's good
00:00:14 - start, but give me some more meat to it." Well that's what I'd
00:00:17 - like to do here is kind of convey a little bit more to you of
00:00:21 - what would be a good way to establish network maintenance procedures,
00:00:24 - what are some key areas to think through. Then I'd like to walk
00:00:28 - you through the IOS maintenance savvy configurations. Unbeknownst
00:00:33 - to most included in the IOS software are a lot of configurations
00:00:37 - you can do to for instance back up your configuration automatically,
00:00:40 - restore your configuration from back up so I'd like to talk through
00:00:43 - some of those without buying any expensive software packages.
00:00:46 - And then we'll look at approaches to troubleshooting, when you're
00:00:50 - walking in again this is before you're treading water what approaches
00:00:53 - can you take to most effectively and efficiently take out the
00:00:58 - problems? So let's get into it one of the first things that
00:01:03 - you should do is establish network maintenance procedures for
00:01:07 - your organization. Here's how you do it you open a Microsoft
00:01:11 - Word or if you're on a budget Word Perfect Document and create
00:01:15 - headers that have each one of these items that I have here on
00:01:18 - this slide listed underneath it and establish what policy you
00:01:23 - would like for each one of those for your organization, get management
00:01:27 - to approve it, email it out to everyone, it's now enacted, it's
00:01:30 - now law that everybody has to adhere to. So I'm going to camp
00:01:34 - a little while on this slide as we unpack each one of these.
00:01:37 - First off change control change control is huge because there's
00:01:41 - no quicker way to undermine a network than have no change control.
00:01:45 - I'd fall into it just as fast as anybody else. You get the email,
00:01:50 - someone says "Hey, can you create a VLAN for us? We're going
00:01:54 - to do some tests in a lab environment and maybe route it to the
00:01:57 - internet, allow it to access a couple of these other areas of
00:02:00 - the network." When I get an email like that I'm like "Sweet,
00:02:04 - sure, I'd love to." It sounds cool to me, I'm like this guy drawing
00:02:09 - things here on the screen, it's already in my mind, I'm like
00:02:12 - "Okay, I've got to create a VLAN, what ports are they in, I've
00:02:14 - got it to the trunk, add it to every switch hole in the way,
00:02:17 - add the router interface." Again, I'm kind of creating that flowchart
00:02:20 - in my mind and it all works in my head and I'm like "Oh this
00:02:23 - is going to be sweet." So you start into it and then you're like
00:02:25 - "Oh, I forgot about let me just do this." Again there's no change
00:02:28 - control, there's no real documentation you're doing along the
00:02:31 - way. You're just putting out somebody's fire for them. They wanted
00:02:34 - a test environment so you're giving them that. And I'll tell
00:02:36 - you what when you're done you're going to be their hero and you've
00:02:39 - undermined your whole network consistency all across the board.
00:02:42 - So the first thing you want to do is figure out what you're going
00:02:45 - to need for change control. What does that mean? It means balancing
00:02:49 - people's needs versus the stability of your network.
00:02:53 - When you're talking about other people their needs are always
00:02:57 - urgent and important. Think back to the last nugget where I was
00:03:00 - talking about Steve and Kevy, that quadrant one where it's just
00:03:03 - like any time somebody has a need, think about yourself and I'll
00:03:07 - put myself out there, that's a little easier to when I was trying
00:03:11 - to get a number ported just the other day to a new carrier and
00:03:14 - I'm emailing him, I'm going "I need this now, I need this number
00:03:17 - now" and they finally jumped through hoops and got it for me,
00:03:19 - I was like "Okay, thanks" and I thought about it and I was like
00:03:24 - "Oh, I guess I really didn't need it now but I'm glad it's done,
00:03:27 - I'm glad it's done" and that's what most people do, when they
00:03:31 - think about things it's urgent, it's in their mind and they want
00:03:33 - to draw you right into that and that's going to kill your network.
00:03:36 - So let me draw up right down to the scheduled maintenance windows
00:03:39 - and I talked about this briefly in the last nugget if you've
00:03:41 - already established schedule maintenance windows for your organization
00:03:45 - then you can go in and say "Oh, great, you want a new test VLAN?
00:03:48 - Well I'm happy, I would love to set that up for you. I've actually
00:03:52 - got a window 1 to 4 am on Friday that I'd be able to do that
00:03:57 - for you to make sure that we don't undermine the network or anything
00:04:00 - like that." Now if you don't have any documentation in place
00:04:04 - they're going to be coming back at you going "What do you mean
00:04:07 - 1 to 4 Friday, it's Tuesday, I can't wait until Friday. What
00:04:11 - do you mean? What's the deal?" But if you've already sent this
00:04:14 - out to the organization they know that it's 1 to 4 on Friday,
00:04:17 - it will either remind them and go "Oh" or they'll get management
00:04:20 - involved and they'll say "Hey, we need this, can you coordinate?"
00:04:23 - but again you're no longer the bad guy, the maintenance procedure
00:04:26 - document is the bad guy. Do you see what I mean? So you've kind
00:04:29 - of balanced it out to where now you're not just doing things
00:04:32 - on a whim, there's a procedure for change, there's a procedure
00:04:36 - for doing things and you really have to assess "When I do things
00:04:39 - like this how does this impact my organization?" I've worked
00:04:43 - with some huge companies and I will say some of them go overboard
00:04:47 - with their documentation to submit a change request for the network
00:04:51 - as you might as well say "We need this also signed by the President
00:04:57 - of the United States in order for this to go through" because
00:05:00 - there are so many hoops to go through but I will say they have
00:05:03 - a very stable network by the time I send it on. So you get my
00:05:05 - point, right? So documentation
00:05:08 - documentation the biggest advice I can give to you on that is
00:05:11 - number one keep it electronic. I've walked into way too many
00:05:14 - organizations where they've got the beautiful landscape document
00:05:18 - up on the wall of the IT room. You go "That is awesome looking"
00:05:21 - and you look at the little date in the corner and it says "This
00:05:23 - was last updated 2007" and there are pencil marks all over it
00:05:28 - of changes of some good hearted person that they tried to do.
00:05:31 - Unfortunately as good as those printed documents look they just
00:05:35 - get outdated way too fast because things are constantly changing
00:05:39 - all the time. So keep it electronic, keep it all in one place,
00:05:43 - and document things like number one network drawings, your VCO
00:05:47 - schematic or your what's a good free one what's the one Google
00:05:51 - makes? SketchUp, I think that's Google's
00:05:56 - one. But essentially some program that you can use to document
00:06:01 - this OmniGraffle if you're on the Macintosh is a great one. Document
00:06:05 - your connections, your WAN links, your LAN connection, your equipment
00:06:08 - list. Again now we're moving to Microsoft Excel where you've
00:06:11 - got the spreadsheet list of what router models you have, what
00:06:15 - modules are inside of those, what date they were installed, what
00:06:19 - date the SmartNet expires on each one of them, when was the last
00:06:23 - time this was set for an IOS upgrade, what's the current IOS
00:06:27 - version. You get all of these, it's all in a kind of a table
00:06:30 - format is what I'm visualizing in Excel as I'm talking about
00:06:33 - this. Now keep in mind I know many of you have these killer products
00:06:37 - like SolarWinds Orion or HP OpenView or something like that that
00:06:41 - does a lot of this for you and if you have them, great. I'm just
00:06:44 - talking Excel, it's free. Well I shouldn't say free but most
00:06:48 - companies have it already on your PC so use that, use Google
00:06:52 - Docs or whatever if you don't have anything fancy. Document your
00:06:56 - IP addresses
00:06:58 - one thing I've been doing lately is creating what I call a network
00:07:01 - Quick Sheet for organizations to where I list the private IP
00:07:05 - addresses, public IP addresses. A lot of the big ones that are
00:07:09 - out there, their uses, what they're assigned to, how they're
00:07:11 - assigned, all those kind of things I wish I could show you some
00:07:14 - of the spreadsheets I've created that are just monstrous, that
00:07:17 - document VMware machines, what SERG, DRAC IP addresses for the
00:07:21 - servers. It's a huge IP address administration document. Document
00:07:26 - your configurations,
00:07:29 - have something I'll show you some IOS tools, I can do this in
00:07:32 - a moment, that regularly backs up your configurations so you
00:07:35 - have them over time because when problems happen the first question
00:07:39 - you have to ask is "What has changed?" and if you have something
00:07:43 - that can notify you when there's a change on a device or update
00:07:46 - the configuration in some way and back up the old config you
00:07:50 - now have a spreadsheet or a template that you can go from to
00:07:54 - say "Okay, I have a feeling this problem's related to XYZ change
00:07:58 - I saw come through" you get my point. Last one is kind of just
00:08:03 - an overall document, I would say the network maintenance procedure
00:08:07 - document, that puts all of these things in one place, kind of
00:08:12 - rule of the road here's how our network runs. Let's
00:08:17 - move into communication. Communication is between you and everybody
00:08:20 - else, essentially keeping people updated as to what you're doing
00:08:25 - and finding out what other people are doing. It's easy to talk
00:08:29 - about when it's a bullet point format but you need to establish
00:08:32 - communication standards for your organization. What are you doing?
00:08:36 - You need to let people know about that. How does it affect the
00:08:39 - other people? How does it affect the other equipments in your
00:08:41 - network? How does it affect the server team? Things like that.
00:08:44 - Is there anything that you need to get from other people? Again,
00:08:47 - all of these things are communication that has to happen and
00:08:51 - unfortunately IT people are not known for strong communication
00:08:54 - skills. I admit I love working in a silo where I own every device
00:08:59 - in the network, I have control over everything and I can run
00:09:02 - the troubleshooting gamut from end to end. But that's not a reality
00:09:06 - for most organizations. If it is for yours, if you are the overlord
00:09:09 - of everything good for you, I'm happy for you because you have
00:09:12 - a big benefit that a lot of us don't because when it comes to
00:09:17 - communication there are a lot of stops that take place and a
00:09:20 - lot of things take a lot longer. But I shouldn't just put a negative
00:09:24 - light on multiple people or the other, there is a synergy that
00:09:27 - happens. I will say some of my favorite past time memories are
00:09:31 - sitting in board room meetings with a whiteboard just full of
00:09:35 - scribbles and we've figured out some policy map to make something
00:09:38 - happen and I didn't figure it out, there were five of us that
00:09:40 - all our brains powered together and like "Oh, there's a way we
00:09:43 - can do it." There is a cool peace to having a team behind you. So
00:09:49 - consistency consistency means having the same procedures, having
00:09:56 - the same configuration on many of the devices out there, defining
00:10:00 - standards for how your devices are set up. For instance are you
00:10:05 - going to use date and time stamps for your log files or are you
00:10:07 - going to use the defaults, the router uptime. Some of you know
00:10:11 - the date and time stamp default of the router uptime this message
00:10:14 - was logged when the router was running for five years, two hours,
00:10:17 - and three minutes and it's not too useful. What date and time
00:10:20 - stamps? What time zone are you going to adhere everything to?
00:10:22 - Are you going to put in the time zone of the local time or are
00:10:25 - you going to put it into the UTC, the Universal Time Coordinated,
00:10:29 - kind of the center of the world time zone? Do your access list
00:10:33 - how are they structured? Do they have permit any's in them? Do
00:10:37 - they have an explicit deny at the end? A lot of people put explicit
00:10:40 - denies so they can see when a packet matches at
00:10:44 - the end of an access list and I'm talking not the implicit deny,
00:10:47 - explicit deny that you actually put in there at the end of an
00:10:50 - access list. So again having a consistent configuration across
00:10:54 - the board means that when you get to each device to troubleshoot
00:10:57 - you don't start going down rabbit holes
00:11:01 - of what's this one, it's different from all the rest, you've
00:11:05 - got the same across the board and then it's very easy to spot
00:11:08 - differences in the configurations because you're so used to seeing
00:11:12 - the template that everybody uses that you can easily see them. Cycling
00:11:17 - equipment most network equipment has a mean time between failure
00:11:23 - an MTBF mean time between failure of 10 years meaning they say
00:11:32 - this equipment will most likely live for 10 years. However CISCO
00:11:36 - recommends I kind of get into the "Why did they recommend this?"
00:11:41 - but CISCO recommends that you cycle out your gear once every
00:11:44 - three years. Now you might think "Wow,
00:11:49 - that immediately throws a paradigm shift on many people because
00:11:53 - you're thinking "Well I've got a switch in the closet, it's been
00:11:56 - there for eight years, it's working just fine, why do I need
00:11:59 - to change it out?" Well I will tell you by having a regular cycling
00:12:04 - equipment process and some of you have this, you know how good
00:12:07 - it can be it's one of those things that it prevents a lot of
00:12:12 - failures and a lot of downtime that could have otherwise been
00:12:14 - prevented. I've been in organizations where every year they get
00:12:20 - $100,000 budget for network upgrades and all it is is pulling
00:12:23 - out the old equipment and putting in the new. And they have a
00:12:26 - network that dreams are made of and the company is solid, the
00:12:30 - company is growing, all those kind of things, so there's something
00:12:32 - to be said for cycling your equipment on a regular basis, not
00:12:36 - just waiting for it to die and then trying to handle it when
00:12:39 - it gets there. But also when you think about cycling equipment
00:12:42 - of replacing failed equipment
00:12:44 - also be prepared for the possibility that you could be struck
00:12:48 - by a disaster. Now I live in a unique part of the world, Arizona,
00:12:52 - nothing happens here. There's never an earthquake, there's never
00:12:55 - a flood, we get dust levels sometimes where the wind blows but
00:12:59 - we don't have tornadoes there's nothing, nothing here, so we
00:13:04 - don't have any natural disasters but there are many areas of
00:13:07 - the world that there is a possibility of a flood or a major fire
00:13:13 - or something. We have fires there we go -things burn in Arizona.
00:13:17 - So you've got to be prepared for that, not just have equipment
00:13:20 - cycling but also say "Okay, what if this room were to explode
00:13:24 - do we have a plan for that?" The final piece of your network
00:13:28 - maintenance procedure is again that scheduled maintenance I won't
00:13:31 - spend time on that because I've already talked about it schedule
00:13:33 - maintenance windows, knowing when you can do maintenance, and
00:13:35 - then a proactive monitoring system. It's great if you can know
00:13:39 - where problems are happening before people are calling you saying
00:13:42 - something is down. Giving you eyes to see into the network is
00:13:47 - what you really want from a monitoring system. I could go down
00:13:50 - a laundry list from MRTG to PRTG to SolarWinds Orion to Cacti
00:13:58 - to again just Google network monitoring, find solutions all the
00:14:03 - way from free to VMware appliances to tens of thousands of hundreds
00:14:08 - of dollars for an enterprise style landscape out of the box kind
00:14:13 - of monitoring solution. Now
00:14:16 - as I move away from what I would call the organizational guidelines
00:14:19 - into more of the technician guidelines I want to start into assembling
00:14:24 - your core maintenance tools. Think of this as like your tool
00:14:27 - kit for managing the network. There are some common tools that
00:14:31 - we use all the time with CISCO and what you need to do is create
00:14:35 - a list of the ones that you use and feel most comfortable with
00:14:39 - for your troubleshooting procedures. It's no fun getting somewhere
00:14:43 - and you go "Oh, I need an FTP server.
00:14:47 - What do I do for that?" You go on Google and you're like FTP
00:14:49 - Server and you see FileZilla up there, you see CoreFTP, you see
00:14:55 - a lot of ones that you can buy out there that are available and
00:14:58 - you go "Oh man, which one's good" and you install it. And again
00:15:02 - you're wasting valuable time setting up for the first time FileZilla
00:15:07 - FTP Server because you've never seen it before. FTP is a core
00:15:12 - utility that almost every network technician will need at some
00:15:15 - point, the ability to bring up an FTP Server. It's funny, I'm
00:15:18 - looking at my list, I'm like I didn't even make my list, I just
00:15:21 - had the TFTP Server. So again having the programs that you use
00:15:25 - and you feel comfortable with, documented and available. I actually
00:15:29 - have one USB key and it's funny, it's one from CBT Nuggets. Thank
00:15:33 - you, CBT Nuggets. When I was out visiting them in Oregon they
00:15:37 - gave me a little duffel bag and in there was a couple of one-gig
00:15:42 - USB keys but I'm telling you one gig is all you need for most
00:15:45 - of what you do. And on that thing I put on FileZilla FTP Server,
00:15:50 - I've got my copy of Secure CRT Portable, I've got PuTTY on there,
00:15:54 - I've got Kiwi Syslog Server on there again all in network directory
00:15:58 - so when I'm at a network and I go "Oh I need Kiwi" I don't have
00:16:01 - to go to the internet and download it, assuming internet access
00:16:04 - is still online, I've got everything I need on what I would call
00:16:08 - my USB key tool kit. So what I've got here as you can see "What
00:16:12 - do you use for TelNet SSH console? What do you use as an NTP
00:16:15 - Server? What do you use for Syslog? What about Gooey access?
00:16:19 - Do you have a copy of for instance the SDM if you
00:16:23 - bow to CISCO's Gooey instead of the command line? What do you
00:16:27 - use for TFTP? I use what do I use? Oh,
00:16:33 - the -what's the name of it? A TFTP 32, the TFTPD32, the one that
00:16:40 - was published by a college university professor so again making
00:16:43 - your list of what you have available. I know there are some things
00:16:46 - on here you might not have seen like Embedded Event Manager Scripts.
00:16:49 - We'll talk about that in just a moment. These are scripts that
00:16:52 - you can use to have the router do things automatedly
00:16:56 - yes, that is a word now to where when an event happens the router
00:17:01 - can respond by backing up its configuration by sending you a
00:17:04 - Syslog message, by counteracting it with some configuration commands.
00:17:08 - EEM is a very powerful thing. Again, I'll expand that more later.
00:17:12 - You might also have some default SLA probe configs. Maybe you
00:17:16 - commonly use a probe to test internet connectivity or have that
00:17:20 - configuration template on your USB key that you can just paste
00:17:23 - it in to the device whenever you get there. All
00:17:27 - right, I know we haven't gotten too deep into it yet but I'm
00:17:31 - going to put the end of this nugget right here because I've actually
00:17:34 - recorded the rest of it and we go for a while. All the different
00:17:39 - maintenance savvy configurations and so on so to keep it palatable
00:17:42 - I'll just stop right there on establishing your network maintenance
00:17:45 - procedures. We'll pick up in the next nugget looking at the IOS
00:17:49 - maintenance savvy configurations and then looking through the
00:17:52 - different approaches that you can take to troubleshooting. But
00:17:55 - for now I hope this has been informative for you and I'd like
00:17:57 - to thank you for viewing.

General TSHOOT: Troubleshooting Before You're Treading Water - Proactive Steps, Part 2

General TSHOOT: IOS Tools to Monitor and Maintain the Network

General TSHOOT: IOS Tools to Monitor and Maintain the Network, Part 2

Switch TSHOOT: VLANs and Spanning Tree Concept Review

Switch TSHOOT: VLANs and Spanning Tree

Switch TSHOOT: VLANs and Spanning Tree, Part 2

Switch TSHOOT: L3 Switching and Redundancy Protocols Concept Review

Switch TSHOOT: L3 Switching and Redundancy Protocols

Switch TSHOOT: L3 Switching and Redundancy Protocols, Part 2

Route TSHOOT: L3 Connectivity and EIGRP Concept Review

Route TSHOOT: L3 Connectivity and EIGRP

Route TSHOOT: L3 Connectivity and EIGRP, Part 2

Route TSHOOT: L3 Connectivity and EIGRP, Part 3

Route TSHOOT: OSPF and Route Redistribution Concept Review

Route TSHOOT: OSPF and Route Redistribution

Route TSHOOT: OSPF and Route Redistribution, Part 2

Route TSHOOT: BGP Concept Review


Route TSHOOT: Router Performance Issues Concept Review

Route TSHOOT: Router Performance Issues

Security TSHOOT: Access List Concept Review

Security TSHOOT: Access List Chaos

IPv6 TSHOOT: IPv6 and IPv6 Routing Protocols

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Jeremy Cioara

Jeremy Cioara

CBT Nuggets Trainer

Cisco CCNA, CCDA, CCNA Security, CCNA Voice, CCNP, CCSP, CCVP, CCDP, CCIE R&S; Amazon Web Services CSA; Microsoft MCP, MCSE, Novell CNA, CNE; CompTIA A+, Network+, iNet+

Area Of Expertise:
Cisco network administration and development. Author or coauthor of numerous books, including: CCNA Voice 640-461 Official Cert Guide; CCNA Voice Official Exam Certification Guide (640-460 IIUC); CCENT Exam Prep (Exam 640-822); CCNA Exam Cram (Exam 640-802) 3rd Edition; and CCNA Voice 640-461 Official Cert Guide.

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