Cisco CCNP SWITCH 642-813

Monitoring: Your Pulse on the Network

by Jeremy Cioara

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Welcome to Cisco Switch: Watch Me First!

The Switches Domain: Core Concepts and Design

VLANs: Configuration and Verification

VLANs: In-Depth Trunking

VLANs: VLAN Trunking Protocol

STP: Foundation Per-VLAN Spanning Tree Concepts, Part 1

STP: Foundation Per-VLAN Spanning Tree Concepts, Part 2

STP: Rapid Spanning Tree Concepts and Configuration

EtherChannel: Aggregating Redundant Links

L3 Switching: InterVLAN Routing Extraordinaire

L3 Switching: Understanding CEF Optimization

Redundancy in the Campus: HSRP, VRRP, and GLBP Part 1

Redundancy in the Campus: HSRP, VRRP, and GLBP Part 2

Campus Security: Basic Port Security and 802.1x

Campus Security: VLAN and Spoofing Attacks

Campus Security: STP Attacks and Other Security Considerations

Campus VoIP: Overview, Considerations, and AutoQoS

Wireless LAN: Foundation Concepts and Design Part 1

Wireless LAN: Foundation Concepts and Design Part 2

Wireless LAN: Frequencies and 802.11 Standards

Wireless LAN: Understanding the Hardware

The Switches Domain: Additional Life-Saving Technology

Monitoring: Your Pulse on the Network

00:00:00 - Monitoring your pulse on a network, I was so excited when I saw
00:00:06 - that CISCO has finally started adding monitoring to their certification
00:00:12 - track. Up till now when somebody says, "Hey, I wanted to get
00:00:16 - CISCO certified, what does that mean?" People would say, "Oh
00:00:18 - well you will be able to configure things and troubleshoot things
00:00:21 - and set things up and all those kind of stuff," but when somebody
00:00:24 - would ask, "Well, how I do I make sure everything is running
00:00:27 - bright just day-to-day," you just hear "wsshhh" that would be
00:00:32 - the response of a tumbleweed blowing by in CISCO certification
00:00:35 - drag. It has never been there and it is such a key part of everything
00:00:38 - that you do in your day-to-day network life setting monitoring.
00:00:42 - So what we are going to do in this nugget is walk through three
00:00:46 - specific things. Setting up Syslog, which is great, setting up
00:00:50 - SNMP which is greater and then finally concluding with the pinnacle
00:00:53 - of it all IP SLA. By the time you are done with these three things
00:00:57 - you will have a very good idea of everything that is happening
00:01:00 - in your network realm so let's get going. So
00:01:03 - first up in our monitoring bag of tricks is going to be Syslog.
00:01:07 - Now chances are if you have been in the land of CISCO for any
00:01:10 - amount of time you have seen Syslog messages as you plugged into
00:01:13 - the council port of your device. As a matter of fact it is one
00:01:16 - of my favorite things to do maybe not my favorite but it is fun.
00:01:20 - When I teach you a live class with people in it that are brand
00:01:23 - new to CISCO, they get into CISCO and this is the first day.
00:01:26 - I go, "Okay, type in config t," and they go, "What?" You know
00:01:31 - once you get passed this and they are like, "Oh, okay so this
00:01:34 - is global config." "Oh, no config t" and we get there and we
00:01:37 - are kind of like, "Okay so you do your config" and they go "How
00:01:40 - do I get out of this?" And I go, "Oh, okay, well you hit control
00:01:42 - z." You go through the whole explanation. They go "Oh, okay,
00:01:45 - so now I can do a show" and they go, "Uh-mm" and you know what
00:01:50 - I am talking about. You felt that I have been there. Remember
00:01:52 - when you first got into CISCO and you are sitting here and you
00:01:54 - are going, "Okay" I was typing and okay so and
00:02:00 - I am deleting what is going and you usually finally you get frustrated
00:02:05 - and usually you get a syntax error of some sort, you know you
00:02:08 - do your show and you are like, "Oh and you know, you are like
00:02:10 - "oh" and you are like "ah" forget you know it just it messes
00:02:13 - you up. And in the first question people get is that they go,
00:02:16 - how do I turn that off and my response is always, you don't want
00:02:19 - to turn that off and they you go, "Why not, why not?" and because
00:02:22 - that is really valuable stuff and it bugs me and so I actually
00:02:26 - wait and I know I am talking a long time but it is so fun because
00:02:30 - I wait a long time to show the miss command which should be by
00:02:33 - default and I still don't know why CISCO doesn't make that by
00:02:36 - default, but you now you know they get back and they still don't
00:02:40 - care what the message say's they just care that their typing
00:02:44 - isn't interrupted and cut in half and things like that, but these
00:02:47 - messages are huge. This is a Syslog message just reported at
00:02:50 - the console of your screen. Now a little bit about Syslog. Syslog
00:02:55 - is an industry standard deal to where every device can use syslog
00:02:58 - and has ability to report things via syslog. The message is can
00:03:02 - contain and this is based on the standards that are in can contain
00:03:06 - up to 80 characters
00:03:09 - and a% sign and that is typically a percent typically divides
00:03:13 - the date and timestamp from the message itself. Now the way
00:03:17 - the message is structured when you are looking at the message
00:03:19 - is it is broken up into 4, I call them major pieces let me go
00:03:25 - back to the prompter so I can highlight. Right up front this
00:03:29 - is the facility. What generated this Syslog message? In this
00:03:32 - case it is the system. This is the severity of the message. How
00:03:37 - impactful is that message on me. Now if you haven't seen the
00:03:40 - severity before then you want to get a feel for the severity
00:03:44 - levels, let me just do logging trap question mark. Here is all
00:03:47 - the severity levels and you can see severity level 5 which is
00:03:50 - what we are at is just a straight up notification. No, not really
00:03:55 - a big deal normal, but significant conditions, you know this
00:03:58 - is normal, but significant, somebody just configured your device,
00:04:01 - you probably want to know about that, but you know below that
00:04:04 - we have like informational like you can ignore these and then
00:04:06 - we have debugs so the higher the number the less impact it has
00:04:10 - in your device. The lower the number you can see emergency system
00:04:13 - is unusable, that is a zero, you know everything is dead is what
00:04:17 - that means. So this number right here represents the severity
00:04:20 - and the reason that is good is you can see right up front it
00:04:23 - allows you to filter what levels of severity you want to see. You
00:04:27 - know and you may say, "Well, you know what, I only would want
00:04:29 - to see level 4 and below which might be a warning condition below."
00:04:34 - So that is the severity and then right next to that you have
00:04:38 - a brief description. Now this is actually what they call the
00:04:43 - brief description. This over here is the message text so 4 major
00:04:48 - pieces facility, severity, brief description, that is what CISCO
00:04:53 - came up with as a brief description for somebody who just configured
00:04:56 - you and then here is the message text for what it is all about. So
00:05:01 - all that being said Syslog is great on your device, by default
00:05:07 - most devices will log it to memory and they call that buffered
00:05:10 - loggings so if I do a show log. I am able to see all of the messages
00:05:14 - that have happened on my device since it booted up. I can see
00:05:17 - some interfaces going down, interfaces going up and all that
00:05:19 - kind of stuff. This is considered the memory buffer or the log
00:05:22 - buffer in memory. This can be configured by going, you can see
00:05:27 - by default it is 4 kilobytes which isn't much. I can go into
00:05:30 - global config mode and do logging buffered
00:05:34 - and you can see right here is how big do you want make that buffer
00:05:40 - and on this device by default it is 4k, but you can get up and
00:05:44 - you know a lot of space and memory and then what level of warnings
00:05:47 - do you want to log in the memory buffer. Now the buffer is great,
00:05:52 - now I will tell you it has bailed me out a lot of times because
00:05:54 - I get on the device. I have no idea what is going on I just do
00:05:57 - a quick show of log and the look at the most recent timestamps
00:06:01 - which if you haven't set the time isn't very helpful, but you
00:06:04 - look at the most recent ones which is going to bot I mean and
00:06:07 - go, "Okay, it looks like most recently such and such failed so
00:06:11 - it is great." But this is all memory based so if the device
00:06:14 - is rebooting, you are losing this. That is why syslog you typically
00:06:18 - want to get a syslog server and I could go on and on and on about
00:06:22 - the different syslog servers that are out there. Splunk is probably
00:06:25 - one of the most scalable yet most confusing ones that are out
00:06:28 - there. Most popular I would say is probably Kiwi Syslog Server
00:06:33 - and this is, I downloaded this by they way you can just go on
00:06:37 - to the internet and let me bring up my
00:06:43 - web page
00:06:46 - and just do a Google for Kiwi Syslog. Kiwi
00:06:51 - Syslog used to be their own company. I think Kiwi was the name
00:06:55 - of the company and they were so fantastic and then they were
00:06:58 - acquired by Solar
00:07:00 - Winds which I am like the odd man out I think, everybody loves
00:07:05 - solar winds and I even go to the CISCO conferences and stuff
00:07:08 - like that and solar winds I will absolutely say they have this
00:07:12 - Orion monitoring projects which is phenomenal.
00:07:15 - I think it is great. I am a big fan of Solar Winds though. I
00:07:20 - am not saying anything against the people, but about and this
00:07:23 - is when Solar Winds was in their early days like 5 or 6 years
00:07:26 - ago I downloaded they had this product called engineer tool set. Now
00:07:30 - I was like, "Oh that sounds cool" and they listed all these tools
00:07:32 - and I got it and the charged like 500 bucks for it or something
00:07:36 - and I got it and it was just. It was. It felt like, maybe it
00:07:40 - wasn't, but it felt like just a bunch of freeware tools that
00:07:43 - they all put in a big zip file and they are like, "Look, we have
00:07:45 - a toolset," and ever since then I have just been kind of like,
00:07:49 - "Yeah, not a big fan of Solar Winds." And that you know, again,
00:07:53 - that being said I think everybody I talk it is like, "I love
00:07:56 - this guys." You know and so then at last they acquired kiwi.
00:08:00 - They bought them and maybe this is why I don't like them too.
00:08:03 - They made Kiwi Syslog a pay product where you have to buy it,
00:08:07 - but they still have freeware version available, you just have
00:08:10 - to dig for it. You know, they will never how you the free version
00:08:12 - right offline it is like buy now. You click on a buy now, look
00:08:15 - at all these features, buy now. You actually have to dig until
00:08:17 - they compare a versions and then they are like, oh here is the
00:08:20 - free version, look it has nothing, but you try it. It is a freeware
00:08:25 - version. It is the original kiwi that was carried over so this
00:08:28 - is it. Some of you are like, "Get to the point, buddy." So Kiwi
00:08:33 - Syslog can be installed on any Windows based platform. It is
00:08:36 - very simple very great to take all your Syslog Messages off of
00:08:41 - the device and it is so easy to set up your CISCO device to log
00:08:47 - to an offsite server. You can see them. You just do a show IP
00:08:51 - interface brief.
00:08:53 - I have given the switch and IP address for my local network here
00:08:56 - 172.30.100.140. Just to let you know my PC that I am working
00:09:01 - on and talking to you on right now has the IP address 172.30.100.30.
00:09:08 - That is my IP. So all I have to do
00:09:13 - go into global, logging, logging,
00:09:20 - my mind just went blank. Hang on, logging
00:09:24 - server. No, what is that? Logging, this is simple, oh
00:09:31 - duh, Logging IP address, thank you. 172.30.100.30
00:09:37 - Enter. Seriously that is all there is to it. Now you might say,
00:09:41 - "Well, how do I set the level of messages if I go over there?"
00:09:44 - Well that is as easy as typing in logging trap and you can see
00:09:49 - trap to do right there, sets this log server logging level and
00:09:54 - you hit the question mark and there is all logging levels. Now,
00:09:56 - the way this works is whenever you choose a number or a level
00:10:00 - it will log that level and below so essentially if I say, "log
00:10:05 - level 3" it is going to log 3, 2, 1,0 because all of those are
00:10:10 - considered more severe. If I say, "level 6" it is going to log
00:10:13 - 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0 and 6 so it is going to be that level and below.
00:10:17 - So I will just, let's go crazy, I will do debug at level 7 right
00:10:22 - here so that is essentially anything that is anything
00:10:25 - Enter. Now as soon as I go back here you can see my Kiwi Syslog
00:10:28 - is blank. I am going to shoot over here and do a control Z which
00:10:32 - will drop me back and shoot right across. I see that I have
00:10:35 - got a priority right there. This is the level that it is going
00:10:39 - to. Here is my syslog message over here that says, "I configured,"
00:10:44 - well because I am going to fit in the screen, but the configured
00:10:48 - by council, from council by council. By the people, for the people
00:10:52 - so I can go in and do some stuff you know interface fast seats
00:10:55 - and at 0/2 I will do a shut down, you know take down an interface
00:10:58 - just generating some messages here and you can see right there.
00:11:01 - Okay, we have got interface 02, change to down and from there
00:11:05 - I can just do any message is going to be logged and now show
00:11:11 - it is going to be logged here and everything is tracked. Now
00:11:15 - this is great, right because I am seeing it on my PC and I can
00:11:18 - set this up to where I have it coming from different sources.
00:11:21 - I can even specify what name the device sends when it sends me.
00:11:25 - If I don't like seeing IP address is I might say, "Well, I want
00:11:28 - it to send you know switch 1 as the host name when it sends these
00:11:31 - messages." So configurable and you have notice all these, these
00:11:35 - are facilities, logging facilities for kiwi so you can say I
00:11:40 - want this device to go to facility one and there is two so that
00:11:42 - way you just don't see you know if you have got 20 devices that
00:11:45 - are all reporting to this syslog you can get pretty confusing
00:11:48 - pretty quick. Likewise this is all being stored in a text file.
00:11:52 - You know and I haven't explored the settings as of late of kiwi
00:11:56 - syslog, but
00:12:00 - this is where you can go in and you know you can see here is
00:12:02 - the formatting. Her is where you are saving it to and now I would
00:12:06 - just be a clicking through this right now, but you can have I
00:12:09 - mean the device can text message you, it can send you an email,
00:12:12 - send you an alarm and all kinds of different stuff, but all of
00:12:15 - these are being stored on a file on your server so that way if
00:12:20 - the device reboots no loss, you have got all your messages that
00:12:23 - even tell you why the device rebooted. I am it is all being logged
00:12:26 - right there. So syslog, it is a very big way to gather information,
00:12:31 - okay, now I feel totally bad. I was sitting there thinking of
00:12:34 - it between syslog and SNMP. I was like, "Man, what if somebody
00:12:39 - from Solar Winds listens to this." As a matter of fact, I was
00:12:41 - actually at the CISCO live conference last year and I met the
00:12:45 - people at the booth from Solar Winds and they are like, "Oh,
00:12:47 - you are the CBT Nuggets guy" so they go like, "Oh yeah." We shook
00:12:49 - hands. He even gave me a USB key and they are really cool people
00:12:52 - and now they are going to listen and they are going to be like
00:12:54 - man you just totally dogged on Solar Winds, that was not cool. I
00:12:58 - am telling you Solar Winds is great it is just I didn't like
00:13:02 - the engineer's tool set that is it, that is all I have to say
00:13:05 - and speaking of SNMP. SNMP if you are solar winds you live this
00:13:11 - and SNMP is I would say the most untapped information rich resource
00:13:17 - in any CISCO Network. When I go out and I set up CISCO networks
00:13:21 - and get them set up and ready to go I always add on some kind
00:13:26 - of SNMP monitoring and when people see it they are like, "Oh,
00:13:30 - my word." I mean I could setup the most piece of junk network
00:13:33 - in the world, but once I show them SNMP they are like, "Why did
00:13:35 - I not know about this?" This is like gold for my network.
00:13:42 - SNMP stands for the Simple Network Management Protocol and it
00:13:45 - totally is. When you understand SNMP, if you, you know go to
00:13:49 - Wikipedia and probably get way more information that you
00:13:53 - need to SNMP is amazingly simple. All it is this. You have got
00:13:58 - devices, right? Let's say, let me just grab my pen here. Let's
00:14:01 - see if you got a CISCO router. There it is and that device has
00:14:05 - some interfaces and you know when you go on in a device I mean
00:14:08 - if I go here and I do a show interface fastEthernet
00:14:12 - 0/1 there is all kinds of stuff here, right. I have got 2557
00:14:20 - packets input, 2543
00:14:22 - broadcast. I mean just stats, right all kinds of stuff and I
00:14:25 - can see here and as time goes on I would be like, "Oh, well let's
00:14:28 - see what it is." Oh it is a little more, okay. Let's what it
00:14:31 - is now and then you can just keep grabbing each one of those,
00:14:34 - but each one of these
00:14:36 - actually has a specific SNMP string. They call that a MIB, a
00:14:42 - Management Information Based String that allows something to
00:14:45 - pull that information so really all, you know when you talk about
00:14:48 - solar winds or I will tell you my favorite in just a second. Again,
00:14:51 - nothing against Solar Winds, but when you have, we will say a
00:14:56 - Solar Winds like Orion Device over here, which his our management
00:15:01 - system it will actually contact this device on whatever interval
00:15:05 - you put, maybe you say I want to contact it once a second that
00:15:08 - is a very aggressive interval and every second it is going to
00:15:11 - go here and say, "Hey, tell me, what is your current packets
00:15:17 - input now?" And the device says, "It is 2584,"
00:15:21 - and it goes, "Okay, 2584."
00:15:24 - Logged it, okay, second letter comes out. "What is it now?" And
00:15:26 - the device goes, "It is 2660
00:15:31 - now," and it goes, "Oh, okay 2660
00:15:34 - logging." And it just keeps every second asking what that is. And
00:15:37 - now, what this and this is where the programmers at Orion and/or
00:15:41 - Solar Winds and all the other monitoring companies come in, they
00:15:44 - will then take that. It is almost like a big Excel Spreadsheet
00:15:47 - when it gets all this data because all SNMP does is simply grabs
00:15:50 - statistics on a specific interval. The Orions or for whatever
00:15:54 - software then takes all of that data which is you know in a database
00:15:57 - kind of like a big Excel Spreadsheet. It says, "Okay, this second,
00:15:59 - this second, this second. These are all the data I have gathered,"
00:16:02 - and it puts it in a pretty web graph. You know the graph, graph,
00:16:05 - graph, graph, graph and says, "Here is your time. Here are your
00:16:08 - packets, input and this would probably a very poor thing to monitor
00:16:12 - because we just it would be something like this." It is just
00:16:14 - constantly going up. It is going to say, "Okay, here is over
00:16:16 - time, how many packets have come in and then you can go with
00:16:19 - the web browser and say, "Okay, well show me over time how that
00:16:23 - interface has been doing?" And shoop, you got a beautiful graph
00:16:25 - and you are like, "Oh, okay this is great. I can show this to
00:16:27 - management," and all that. What most people use SNMP for
00:16:32 - is bandwidth monitoring.
00:16:34 - I would say that is absolutely the number one facet that we use
00:16:39 - SNMP tracking for. So you will say, "Show me the
00:16:45 - 5 minute input rate once every 30 seconds and graph that over
00:16:50 - time." And by doing that you will be able to see over time just
00:16:53 - how much traffic is going through your device. Now as I said
00:16:57 - Orion is great but it is not my favorite simply because it is
00:17:00 - too expensive for the little companies. The one that I love and
00:17:04 - they should give me free stuff because everybody I talked too
00:17:07 - I say, "Go buy this product." The one that I love is actually
00:17:11 - PRTG. As a matter of fact, let me just take you there real quick.
00:17:16 - The reason I love them is anybody who gives free stuff is cool
00:17:20 - in my book and PRTG is one of them. PRTG and then the company
00:17:25 - is Paesler. I think there are some guys in Germany I want to
00:17:29 - say but have been great. I have actually used PRTG for years
00:17:32 - and years and years and it you know they have a freeware down
00:17:36 - that I think it gives you like 10 sensors or essentially 10 SNMP
00:17:40 - objects that you can monitor by default, let me just take you
00:17:42 - there real quick. This is what it looks like. Now if PRTG sounds
00:17:47 - familiar. You might be thinking of MRTG which is the totally
00:17:49 - Linux-ey you know pearl scripting kind of free ware version of
00:17:53 - this. This one just runs on Windows which is great and what it
00:17:57 - does and this is kind of a picture over time. Oh, this is perfect.
00:18:00 - It takes all of the stuff that has been gathering via SNMP. Here
00:18:02 - is the database right, all this stuff over time and it puts on
00:18:06 - a chart. So this is in this case is showing you a fiber optic
00:18:09 - connection over 365 days showing the traffic in and traffic out
00:18:13 - of bandwidth and this you know it is all web based and all that
00:18:20 - kind of stuff. So yeah, that is PRTG, so SNMP is essentially
00:18:25 - the engine that all of these different monitoring devices use
00:18:29 - to grab this data and I will tell you if your company is not
00:18:32 - using SNMP go there, set it up and you will be the hero of the
00:18:37 - year, because you will say, "Hey, do you ever wonder you know,
00:18:40 - how much traffic people surfing the internet are generating?"
00:18:43 - And wham here is a graph. Let me show you right here and they
00:18:46 - are going to immediately going to be like how did you do that,
00:18:47 - show me. How do I get to that? That is awesome. This is amazing.
00:18:51 - It is great. So SNMP should be everywhere
00:18:56 - 3 different versions that are out there. Version extremely old
00:18:59 - I think it maxed out at 10 megabit per second interfaces. There
00:19:04 - is version 2 which is updated. However, the big problem with
00:19:08 - SNMP version 1 and version 2 is that they do not support any
00:19:13 - kind of encryption or authentication so that is where SNMP version
00:19:19 - 3 comes in. SNMP version 3 adds encryption. It adds authentication
00:19:23 - now it is very low level, base level encryption I think it does
00:19:27 - encryption to it, but adds at least some level of encryption
00:19:31 - and authentication. However, it is much more difficult to set
00:19:34 - up in the big picture and honestly when you really get to it,
00:19:37 - it is not but unless CISCO really focuses most of their documentation
00:19:43 - on version 1 and version 2. Version 2 being I would say the de
00:19:46 - facto standard for most of what we do nowadays. To set up SNMP
00:19:50 - it is again, just like Syslog very simple. Let
00:19:54 - me bring my switch back on. I am going to go to global- woe look
00:19:59 - at that- go to global config mode
00:20:03 - and do an SNMP server is the command followed by community. Now
00:20:10 - you will find it in SNMP everything is based around this community
00:20:13 - string and when I said that version 1 and version 2 don't have
00:20:17 - authentication that is pretty much true because authentication,
00:20:22 - most people think, okay user name, password encrypted password
00:20:25 - all that kind of stuff. They have- I guess you could all base,
00:20:28 - base, base level of authentication and it is this community string
00:20:32 - as in you can't gather these statistics unless you provide the
00:20:36 - right community string and that community string is provided
00:20:39 - by you. Now, the most popular and hackers know this, the most
00:20:42 - popular computer strings for read only meaning gathering information
00:20:47 - from that device is public and some of you know this. You know
00:20:51 - that if you are a hacker the first thing you want to do when
00:20:53 - you are on a reconnaissance and you are trying to gather information
00:20:56 - you are going to try SNMP public community string to see if you
00:20:59 - can get information and the read write community string which
00:21:02 - is extremely dangerous a default on many devices is actually
00:21:06 - private so if you leave a device a default, not CISCO devices,
00:21:11 - but most devices if you leave it a default and somebody comes
00:21:14 - in and tries to use the private stringing at work they pretty
00:21:17 - much own your device. Or my little brother said, there is this
00:21:22 - new term I guess when you are playing online games and you shoot
00:21:25 - somebody. You say they are "pwned," is that
00:21:31 - right? What is up with that? It is missing vowel somewhere but
00:21:34 - nonetheless somebody will "pwn" you if they have the read write
00:21:38 - community string to your device. So I would highly recommend
00:21:42 - not even setting one up unless you really, really have to. Most
00:21:46 - monitoring utilities like Orion and PRTG and all of the other
00:21:52 - ones that are out there MRTG, only need read only access, meaning
00:21:55 - they are only pulling data from the device on certain interval. Read
00:21:58 - write as if you want that monitoring utility to actually be able
00:22:01 - to make changes and if you have read write access people can
00:22:04 - actually change running config. There is ways to change the passwords
00:22:07 - on the CISCO device if you know the read write community string
00:22:09 - so again "pwned" I got to get use to saying it. It sounds like
00:22:13 - pony to me. So I am going to go in here and do an SNMP server
00:22:18 - community and I go in and I say, "Okay, the community string
00:22:21 - is going to be super
00:22:25 - secret which his again a horrible community string, but just
00:22:30 - for example and then I may hit the question mark and you can
00:22:33 - see is this the read only or read write community string. I
00:22:37 - am going to say, "This is the read only buddy." So if you got
00:22:40 - the super secret you can pull data from this but you can't change
00:22:43 - any data on the device. Again, most of the time I will not define
00:22:47 - a read write community string and this is a very specific reason
00:22:50 - to do that. There are utilities out there that it is kind of
00:22:53 - like a CISCO works kind of like a centralized management utility
00:22:56 - that would like read write access for both of these. I would
00:23:00 - highly suggest attacking on an access list until you know defining
00:23:03 - an access list, say access list. We will say 10 permits 172.30.100.30
00:23:12 - essential and well all those been while 000. And then I will
00:23:18 - say, "The SNMP community super secret read only," and I will
00:23:21 - say, "Filtered by access was 10."
00:23:27 - So now when I try and access this device so now I have done look
00:23:31 - at this I did both version 1 and version 2 so when I try and
00:23:36 - access this device I have to be that host or else I am not going
00:23:40 - to be able to access it via SNMP. So from there the rest of the
00:23:45 - SNMP setup is totally up to the management utility like PRTG.
00:23:49 - Hang on, actually run PRTG so let me bring this up, I am trying
00:23:54 - to hide any sensitive information from this, but I just went
00:23:58 - to the PRTG added device and you could see here is the device
00:24:01 - name. Here is its IP address so in there. Here is what icon you
00:24:04 - want to give it. They have auto discovery which is great because
00:24:08 - otherwise you have to add the individual counters 1 by 1. This
00:24:11 - kind of adds the most common counters if you will and then you
00:24:14 - come down here and you say, "Okay, SNMP devices," and you would
00:24:17 - say, "I am using SNMP version 2." My community string and that
00:24:21 - is where you would type it super, blah, blah, blah. And what
00:24:24 - this would do, I am not going to do it, but what this would do
00:24:27 - is when you hit continue, go out and then create graphs for all
00:24:31 - of the common interfaces of that device and you will be able
00:24:35 - to see the charts and you know CPU utilization, memory utilization,
00:24:39 - all of that. And so again, SNMP is a massively great thing that
00:24:44 - you want to set up in your environment. Can I tell you one more
00:24:47 - story? Okay, if you don't want to hear the story you can fast
00:24:50 - forward, but again at CISCO live last year and actually PRTG
00:24:53 - or Paessler the company who makes that was at CISCO live for
00:24:56 - the first time this last year and I was like, "Oh, oh and I went
00:25:00 - up there and I was like you guys are totally great, I have been
00:25:02 - using you for 8 years," and you know, "Everybody I tell about
00:25:06 - you," and all this kind of stuff. Like in the back of my mind.
00:25:08 - I am like, "I wonder if I can get some free stuff because I am
00:25:10 - the free stuff guy, right?" And I am like, "So I was wondering,
00:25:14 - you know I am talking to them, I was like, I was wondering, "Do
00:25:17 - you have like a not for resale like NFR version of your product
00:25:21 - kind of like an unlimited version? So I could just demo this
00:25:23 - to people and show people." You know, "Or like a t-shirt or something,"
00:25:28 - you know because seriously I tell everybody and they had German
00:25:33 - accents and it was funny he is like, "You can download the freeware
00:25:37 - version, why do you want more from us?" and I am kind of like-
00:25:41 - well, I am trying to be subtle and I was totally shut down. You
00:25:44 - know I was like, "Okay, no free stuff from them." So you can
00:25:48 - see nonetheless I still love PRTG so great SNMP utility to monitor. All
00:25:56 - right, the last thing I want to talk about and as we wrap up
00:26:00 - this monitoring section is something that is so awesome. It is
00:26:04 - called IP SLA (IP Service Level Assurance). Now SLA, you may
00:26:10 - have heard the term before it is typically something that you
00:26:13 - get from a service provider when you sign up for instance even
00:26:16 - at my house I have quest business connection and they gave me
00:26:21 - a contract when I was there saying, "Hey, we guarantee you that
00:26:24 - you will be up this percentage of the time. You will have this
00:26:27 - level of bandwidth." It is something that they assure you that
00:26:30 - says, "We will meet these parameters if you pay us a zillion
00:26:33 - dollars a month." You go, "Okay," and you sign the SLA and you
00:26:36 - agree. Well IP SLA is your way of holding them to it. Essentially,
00:26:42 - IP SLA is a monitoring system within your CISCO devices and this
00:26:48 - is not something that is only limited to switches like we are
00:26:51 - talking about right now or layer 3 switches I should be more
00:26:54 - specific, but it is also available on routers and it is very
00:26:58 - handy. What this does is detect link failure or link performance
00:27:03 - using real time data. Let me just give you a couple quick examples
00:27:06 - of this. The way it works essentially is let's say I have got
00:27:10 - a- let me draw over here I have got little room here or router
00:27:15 - that has a connection to the internet through service provider
00:27:19 - 1 and a back up connection to the internet using service provider
00:27:23 - 2. Now, one thing that I found as of late in the United States
00:27:29 - is a lot of people are moving to very fast yet very low cost
00:27:34 - internet connectivity through a lot of the cable modem and DSL
00:27:38 - providers so for example they might have a T1 line to the internet
00:27:43 - which they are paying you know 200 dollars a month for.
00:27:47 - I am just saying. Now T1, when you would say T1 back 5 years
00:27:50 - ago people are like, "Oooh it is a T1." Well maybe I am for the
00:27:53 - back 8 years ago people were like, "Ooh, a T1 line that is fast
00:27:56 - that is great," but nowadays people like T1, come on. You know
00:27:59 - my home internet can actually it is like 10 times that fast. So
00:28:02 - people are coming into the office you know and they are just
00:28:05 - very said because their internet browsing is very slow. So when
00:28:08 - I have seen a lot of companies do is the y move their T1 to a
00:28:11 - back up connection and they buy you know we will say- and I am
00:28:15 - talking to Arizona here. Well Cocks Cable Modem or quest DSL
00:28:19 - Circus that has you know 20 megabits per second you know like,
00:28:24 - you know 15 times faster than a T1 line and they get it for $150
00:28:28 - a month and that is great, you get crazy speed from that, but
00:28:32 - still cable in DSL are not as reliable as the good LT1 lines
00:28:36 - from yester year. So they will make this their primary internet
00:28:40 - connection and if this goes down then they will fail over to
00:28:43 - their good old back up T1 connection as a fail over circuit.
00:28:48 - Now here is the problem. When you look at a lot of the architecture
00:28:52 - of these DSL and cable modem boxes a lot of times you have a
00:28:55 - router and it is connected right here to a cable modem. You know
00:28:59 - here is your little lights on the cable modem or DSL box that
00:29:03 - converts either Coax or an RJ 11 phone line or whatever kind
00:29:07 - of circuit in to an Ethernet cable on this side and then this
00:29:11 - goes off and we will say you know to the big cloud, the internet
00:29:14 - connection. Now the problem is, is if this goes down you know
00:29:17 - back hoe takes out this line in your parking lot this circuit
00:29:20 - stays up. So from your router's perspective it is like, "Hey,
00:29:25 - I am still seeing up, up, this is good it will never actually
00:29:28 - fail over because the interface at least right here this point
00:29:33 - right here, that interface never goes down unless the cable modem
00:29:36 - goes down or the DSL modem goes down." So what IPSLA can do is
00:29:41 - this. You can have this router. This is the router right here.
00:29:44 - The smiling router, send a probe once every whatever, you define
00:29:51 - it 10 seconds, 5 seconds, second every you know 20 seconds whatever. Send
00:29:55 - a probe to whatever destination you want, now that could be the
00:29:59 - ISP's gateway, that could be you know a DNS server like 4.2.2.2
00:30:05 - that is a really reliable DNS server out on the internet. That
00:30:08 - could be some of my Google.com who never seems to go down. Something
00:30:12 - that is very reliable and report back, essentially it will send
00:30:15 - we'll say a ping message to that device and it comes back and
00:30:18 - says, "Yup, I am online," and the IP SLA will say, "Okay, I am
00:30:21 - successful." Well when this goes down you know outside the cable
00:30:26 - modem and this stays up those probes will end up failing. So
00:30:30 - it is going to say, "Okay, yes, the interface shows it up, but
00:30:33 - my probes are coming back as down," thus I will consider this
00:30:36 - interface or will be more specific the route that uses that interface
00:30:41 - to be down and now will fail over to the back of T1 line that
00:30:45 - is one of many uses of IP SLA, but I would say probably one of
00:30:50 - the most common. So before I go any further and talking about
00:30:54 - some of these other ones let me just show you on the switch and
00:30:58 - this is you know this normally done a router, but it could be
00:31:00 - done on a switch too. How to set this up? It is a little more
00:31:04 - pieces into it and I will explain why? First thing you need
00:31:07 - to do is set up the probe, you know my little circle right here.
00:31:10 - I think of these, I don't know, why every time, I think of an
00:31:12 - IP SLA probe I think of little androids like on Star Wars, you
00:31:16 - know, they are kind of hovering around, that is what these are
00:31:19 - like. Little androids that you can make them look like anything,
00:31:22 - so I am going to go in and define what is my Android look like?
00:31:26 - I am going to go and say IP SLA monitor.
00:31:30 - Oh, okay, my commands are slightly different. There is different
00:31:36 - versions of the IOS. You will see for instance some have IP SLA
00:31:39 - monitor and you type a number. This one just says, "IP SLA,"
00:31:42 - and you type the number. So I will say, "IP SLA 100?" And it
00:31:47 - is saying okay what does this android look like, essentially
00:31:50 - what do you want to make this little probe right here look like
00:31:53 - as it is being sent across the internet? Now you can see you
00:31:57 - have a variety of options here. You can say, "Make it a DNS operation,"
00:32:01 - you know, "Do a DNS look up, make it look like a DHCP reply or
00:32:05 - request," you know, "Send an HTTP connect request."
00:32:09 - Pretty flexible if you look at this, I mean you could say if
00:32:12 - that webserver doesn't reply with this web page send me an alert
00:32:15 - again, all kinds of things, but right now I am just talking about
00:32:18 - fail over so this one would probably be an ICMP echo. I will
00:32:22 - say, "icmp-echo 2," where you would go in and find it. It says,
00:32:26 - "I am going to be a probe, what is my destination?" It could
00:32:30 - be the ISP's gateway. It could be you know this DNS server right
00:32:34 - here so I will say, "icmp-echo 4.2.2.2?"
00:32:40 - and says, "If you want you can send us, use a specific source
00:32:44 - address." But I am just going to say, "That is it. I just wanted
00:32:46 - to send that echo." Now notice, I am going deeper in this config
00:32:50 - mode. It says, "Okay, you have configured a little android, a
00:32:52 - little probe and it is going to be an icmp-echo to this." Now
00:32:56 - what are some characteristics of this? How often do you want
00:32:59 - to send this echo and I will say, "Well I want to send this once
00:33:03 - every- now let's send it once every 10 seconds or maybe 5 seconds."
00:33:07 - You know I want to make sure it stays up line. You know what
00:33:10 - is the time out of this? What is the threshold and milliseconds
00:33:14 - that you will be able to take for you know if a reply doesn't
00:33:17 - come? There is again all kinds of things that you can get in
00:33:20 - to and I would say check out CISCO's website and IP SLA if you
00:33:23 - want to define each one of these things. I will jus say, "Send
00:33:26 - a PING once every 5 seconds and leave everything else at default.
00:33:29 - So I am going to exit back out and I am going to do IPS. So I
00:33:34 - have now defined the probe." IP SLA and I am going to schedule
00:33:39 - this guy. I am going to say, "You know what? I want to schedule
00:33:42 - probe number 100."
00:33:46 - You can see that is the number of this. That is the entry number.
00:33:50 - Schedule 100 to start,
00:33:54 - let's do it now, you know because I don't know what the date
00:33:57 - and time is on this device and I will say, "The life span of
00:34:04 - this is forever.
00:34:08 - It is an eternal probe." So
00:34:12 - from there you know I could go on and specify each parameters
00:34:16 - how long to keep this entry when it is inactive like if I disable
00:34:18 - it and so on, but I will just say, "That is it, it is now scheduled
00:34:21 - and it started to run forever. Now I guarantee you this probe
00:34:25 - is now dying. Simply because this is a switch with virtually
00:34:29 - no configuration it doesn't know how to get off the network.
00:34:33 - So I am going to do an IP, let's go back here and do show IP
00:34:39 - SLA statistics
00:34:42 - and you can see right here I have got the probe last return was
00:34:46 - timeout and you know it was running last every 5 seconds right? So
00:34:49 - it has already had 2 failures and it lives forever. Actually,
00:34:53 - I might be able to fix this really quick, let me give it a default
00:34:56 - gateway. I bet you that will do it. I don't even thing I have
00:35:01 - routing turned down so I will do IP Default gateway, 172.31.100.1.
00:35:06 - I don't even think I need a static route all zeros so let me
00:35:10 - just do this, ping, we are going
00:35:13 - to get there, probably not.
00:35:17 - Why not? Hey I
00:35:19 - am going to just do a show IP route.
00:35:25 - Now default gateway can I ping
00:35:28 - that. Please hold while I will troubleshoot my home network and
00:35:31 - oh look at that why isn't that going, hang on. Ping 4.2.2.2,
00:35:35 - why are you not getting there, can't get there. Here
00:35:41 - is the beauty of CBT Nuggets, what just happened for you right
00:35:44 - there in a split second was probably about 15 minutes for me.
00:35:47 - Try and figure out what is going on in my home network and actually
00:35:49 - I discovered I had a static route on my ASA firewall set up wrong
00:35:53 - for months, probably explains a lot of other issues that I was
00:35:58 - running into so I am happy that I fixed that. So nonetheless
00:36:01 - I just fixed the static route on my firewall and now that is
00:36:06 - working great and you can see my switch is right here ping to
00:36:08 - 4.2.2.2. Now if I go back
00:36:12 - and do a show IP SLA statistics, now check that out. We have
00:36:17 - got last return "okay." The probe is working. We are now able
00:36:22 - to send probes to 4.2.2.2 and as you know as time goes on we
00:36:26 - are going to see these number successes increasing. Now this
00:36:29 - is all great. Now I could stop right there and say that is it
00:36:34 - SLA is awesome, we love it, you know, great because that is monitoring
00:36:39 - and you can actually add that to a maundering system like Orion
00:36:43 - or PRTG in graph over time, what your roundtrip statistics would
00:36:47 - be for this sort of thing, but SLA can do so much more for example. This
00:36:52 - little probe or we will call it this SLA Object could be a attached
00:36:57 - to what is called a tracking object so watch this, I am going
00:36:59 - to type in track and we will just call this track object number
00:37:04 - one and I am going to track IP- no, no, no, I am going track
00:37:10 - ITR now this words are going to get a little weird, you are going
00:37:15 - what, what is RTR. RTR is the old name of SLA that CISCO forgot
00:37:20 - to update in this version and I think probably if you have in
00:37:23 - their latest and greatest IP SLA used to be called RTR responder
00:37:27 - a real time reporter RTR you know there is a responder entry
00:37:30 - and all that kind of stuff. So RTR is the old name and I bet
00:37:34 - you, maybe by the time you hear this or the new code comes out
00:37:38 - you know IOS 15 and beyond you are going to see this replaced
00:37:41 - by SLA or IP SLA or something like that, but I am going to say
00:37:45 - track object number one is going to be tied to SLA probe 100,
00:37:50 - now what is that, this guy, you know check to see if I can ping
00:37:54 - for 4.2.2.2 which DNS server. Now what am I going to track. I
00:37:58 - am going to say, I am going to track the reach ability of that
00:38:02 - enter and then it goes in this little sub mode where you can
00:38:05 - set some delays and all that kind of stuff, but I am just going
00:38:08 - to exit out because I have now defined a track object. You might
00:38:11 - say, "Okay, Jeremy, what can you do with a track object?" A track
00:38:16 - object can be assigned to a static route. Let me take you back
00:38:20 - to this scenario. When we set this up you know with what we will
00:38:23 - say, "Cox or QWest" or sorry, "We have got Cox or QWest being
00:38:27 - our primary and if that goes down we go to this." Well there
00:38:30 - is going to be a default route. I am going to have you know we
00:38:32 - will say IP route
00:38:35 - 0.0.0. a whole bunch of zeroes and then I will say you know my
00:38:41 - default route goes to you know we will say 2.16.1.1.1.,
00:38:45 - which is the gateway over here to Cox or QWest you follow me? So
00:38:49 - this is a default route letting this router use that. Now, we
00:38:52 - would also have a default route for here which you know a very
00:38:56 - simple set up I will just do IP route you know all zeroes and
00:39:01 - then put the default gateway over here. We will just say it is
00:39:03 - 1.1.1.1 and then I would just tweak the administrative distance
00:39:06 - of that route higher, maybe make it 50 or something like that
00:39:09 - so this route would not be used unless this route went down because
00:39:13 - its administrative distance is 1, sorry if I am talking to fast,
00:39:16 - but I am putting all that together. So what I would do is I would
00:39:19 - then tack on a track object to it so check this out. Imagine
00:39:23 - that I had this as my primary connection. I would go in and I
00:39:27 - would say IP route you
00:39:31 - know this is my Cox or QWest DSL modem and I would say this is
00:39:35 - going to- we will say 1.1.1.1
00:39:39 - or hang on. We made that like 216.1.1.1.1
00:39:43 - is Cox or Qwest and then I would add on to that, track
00:39:48 - 1 Enter. Now what does that do? What that does is it says only
00:39:55 - make this route available or added to the routing table as long
00:39:59 - as track 1 is returning a positive response. Now there is a lot
00:40:03 - of little ties that came in here so let's back track and put
00:40:06 - it all together. Okay track object 1 is tied to reachability
00:40:10 - of SLA object 100, SLA object 100 is pinging this DNS server
00:40:18 - every 5 seconds so if SLA 100 goes down the reachability for
00:40:22 - track objects 1 goes down thus the static route gets pulled from
00:40:26 - the routing table and that will fail over to this one. Viola,
00:40:30 - we have SLA in a failover kind of situation, but and you know,
00:40:34 - okay stop right there. Okay, wasn't that awesome. Sorry I just
00:40:39 - had that. I love SLA for tracking. I have used this actually
00:40:43 - another place I use this was a company had a 2 buildings tied
00:40:48 - together and they actually tied them using WiFi at a little dish
00:40:52 - on the top of these buildings right here doing WiFi between there
00:40:57 - like a mile or two apart and then they had a T1 line as a back
00:41:00 - up so this one ran at 54 megabits per second, but was unreliable
00:41:06 - for unbeknownst reasons. You know, it would just go down, you
00:41:09 - know bad stormy day, conflicting frequencies and all that kind
00:41:12 - of thing. Well the problem in the same way is the dish was attached
00:41:15 - to some device, I don't' remember what it was in the middle which
00:41:19 - terminated the WiFi and brought it out on Ethernet to the router
00:41:22 - and the router you know even if this WiFi went down the router
00:41:25 - had no way of telling because the link always stayed on. So we
00:41:28 - use SLA to track the reachability of the wireless bridge so it
00:41:32 - works awesome for not just this kind of situation, but all kinds
00:41:36 - of situations where you are not able to tell if the link is down
00:41:39 - unless you send some active traffic. But again you know this
00:41:43 - had so many different things that you can set up, you can use
00:41:46 - it to monitor voice and quality levels of voice and if the quality
00:41:50 - is in at a certain level switch over to a different link. I mean
00:41:53 - there is all kinds of things that you can do with it, so please
00:41:56 - I would encourage you open the can on IP SLA when you are done
00:41:59 - with this nugget, check it out because it can do so much stuff.
00:42:02 - The last thing I want to mention is an SLA end point can be either
00:42:07 - a device or something called an SLA responder so let me wipe
00:42:12 - all this stuff off. So
00:42:15 - what is the difference, you can have a router sending we will
00:42:20 - say a ping, we will say it is an SLA ping to the other side as
00:42:24 - a device or if it is a CISCO device you can set it up as an SLA
00:42:31 - responder. Or it used to be called the real time response, responder
00:42:38 - and so what is the difference, well just what we did right here,
00:42:42 - let me get back here. What we did with this example that I gave
00:42:46 - you is we set up IP SLA to a device, who? 4.2.2.2 the DNS server
00:42:53 - out on the internet, that is the device that we are paying. It
00:42:56 - doesn't know that we have SLA going to it. It is just saying,
00:42:59 - "Hey, somebody is pinging me. Let me return a response." If you
00:43:02 - sue an IP SLA responder it takes a little configuration on this.
00:43:05 - It is very minimal actually and what you do is now have this
00:43:09 - guy communicate to the SLA responder service which will give
00:43:12 - you a more accurate result. See here is the idea, if I set up
00:43:16 - SLA to a device which I will just say this is 4.2.2.2 our server.
00:43:22 - You are going to measure the amount of time the ping took to
00:43:25 - get here. The amount of time it took to process that ping packet,
00:43:30 - create another packet and then send it back to you. So what
00:43:34 - you know, you may be thinking, "Oh, well I am getting you know
00:43:36 - the reports on this line." Well yeah, you are you are seeing
00:43:39 - how fast that line is in the delay if you will to get from you
00:43:43 - to there, but the problem is if this DNS server gets really bogged
00:43:47 - down and doesn't have time to respond to your packet it might
00:43:50 - you know shoot the delay up to 200 milliseconds for one of your
00:43:53 - pings and you are going to get reports back and go, "Oh, wow,
00:43:56 - my line is really bad because you know we must be getting poor
00:43:59 - service from the service provider when really it is the server
00:44:02 - that was the poor responding device. Does that make sense? So
00:44:06 - what the SLA responder does is it will send the packet and as
00:44:10 - soon as that packet is received it puts a little tag saying I
00:44:14 - received it at such and such time. Now it will then process it,
00:44:19 - repackage it and send it the other way and subtract from the
00:44:24 - time the total time all of the processing time that that router
00:44:28 - took. So if the router is really bogged down and it takes 200
00:44:30 - milliseconds to process the packet no worries, it is going to
00:44:33 - subtract 200 milliseconds off of the SLA so when it is received
00:44:38 - back at your router you are seeing a true result of how fast
00:44:43 - or what is the delay on that line. So if you have got the SLA
00:44:45 - responder service going you are able to really have assurance
00:44:49 - that it is the service provider's problem and it is not just
00:44:52 - this device getting slowed away down. So IP SLA it is one of
00:44:57 - those things, the only thing I love more than IP SLA is, I don't
00:45:00 - know brownies. It is one of those concepts that is like, "Oh
00:45:05 - that is really cool." I could see, you know if you let your brain
00:45:08 - just rest for that for a moment you are going to come up with
00:45:10 - like 90 different things. You are like oh I could totally use
00:45:12 - that for that and that, and that, and that. It is just it is
00:45:14 - one of those things that fits almost anywhere. It is like duct
00:45:16 - tape, duct tape for your CISCO router. Use it all the time. So
00:45:20 - we have seen in this section. I am so happy that CISCO has added
00:45:24 - monitoring to their exams now. Syslog, SNMP and IP SLA's 3 things
00:45:30 - when you tie all three of these things together you have an extremely
00:45:34 - powerful solution for tracking what is going on in your CISCO
00:45:37 - network so hope this has been informative for you and I like
00:45:41 - to thank you for viewing.

Campus Security: VACLs

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Jeremy Cioara

Jeremy Cioara

CBT Nuggets Trainer

Certifications:
Cisco CCNA, CCDA, CCNA Security, CCNA Voice, CCNP, CCSP, CCVP, CCDP, CCIE R&S; Amazon Web Services CSA; Microsoft MCP, MCSE, Novell CNA, CNE; CompTIA A+, Network+, iNet+

Area Of Expertise:
Cisco network administration and development. Author or coauthor of numerous books, including: CCNA Voice 640-461 Official Cert Guide; CCNA Voice Official Exam Certification Guide (640-460 IIUC); CCENT Exam Prep (Exam 640-822); CCNA Exam Cram (Exam 640-802) 3rd Edition; and CCNA Voice 640-461 Official Cert Guide.


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