Cisco CCNA ICND2 640-816

NAT: Command-line NAT Configuration

by Jeremy Cioara

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Video Title Duration

Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 1

Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 2

Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 3

Switch VLANs: Understanding VLANs

Switch VLANs: Understanding Trunks and VTP

Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 1

Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 2

Switch STP: Understanding the Spanning-Tree Protocol

Switch STP: Configuring Basic STP

Switch STP: Enhancements to STP

General Switching: Troubleshooting and Security Best Practices

Subnetting: Understanding VLSM

Routing Protocols: Distance Vector vs. Link State

Routing Protocols: OSPF Concepts

Routing Protocols: OSPF Configuration and Troubleshooting

Routing Protocols: EIGRP Concepts and Configuration

Access-Lists: The Rules of the ACL

Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs

Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs, Part 2

NAT: Understanding the Three Styles of NAT

NAT: Command-line NAT Configuration

00:00:00 - Now that we understand the concepts, we turn our attention to
00:00:03 - the NAT command line configuration. In ICND1, we configure
00:00:09 - NAT through the SDM, the gooey, and that was as simple as next
00:00:13 - next finish, and we were essentially done. Now we're gonna
00:00:17 - do it from the command line where we have complete control
00:00:20 - over exactly how NAT is going to operate. Of course, with
00:00:23 - control comes complexity, so we'll start off with the most common
00:00:27 - form of NAT, which is configuring NAT overload. Once we're done with
00:00:31 - that, we should have clients in our network that's able to access
00:00:34 - the Internet. From there we'll be able to configure static NAT,
00:00:38 - which will be used to host some internal servers on our
00:00:41 - network from the outside world. Last but not least, we have
00:00:46 - configuring dynamic NAT with overload. This is something you would
00:00:50 - do in a larger network to allow multiple internal clients to
00:00:54 - translate out to the Internet to a pool of addresses that can
00:00:58 - be overloaded themselves. Meaning, once you tap all the port numbers
00:01:02 - that are available on one IP address, it can move over to a
00:01:05 - second one.
00:01:07 - As we do our configuration, most of our focus will be on router
00:01:11 - one, because that's where all the action's happening, and this is
00:01:14 - the router that's doing NAT. Now I want to go in and just test a
00:01:17 - few things and do some proofs to make sure that our Internet
00:01:21 - routing is working okay, and our, our normal routing is working
00:01:24 - okay. I'm gonna to router one, and what I'm going to do, is on router
00:01:28 - one I'm gonna ping the ISP, to make sure I'm getting there and make
00:01:31 - sure I'm getting out to the Internet. So on router one I'll just
00:01:34 - do a show IP interface brief. There's my public IP address. I'm gonna
00:01:37 - ping 171.97, which is my ISP, and sure
00:01:46 - enough, it's working. Now I'm getting some pretty slow response times
00:01:49 - because I have a massive file upload going on in the background.
00:01:52 - So we're not really concerned about performance right now, I just want
00:01:54 - to make sure I'm connected. Now let me ping my, my favorite IP address
00:01:58 - in all the world. 4.2.2.2, that is a public
00:02:01 - DNS server out on the Internet, and I can verify my routing table,
00:02:05 - I have a default route, it is going to my ISP. Obviously that
00:02:10 - default route is working right now, because I'm able to get to that
00:02:13 - DNS server. By the way, here's a tip of the day for you. If you ever want your
00:02:17 - router to use a, a name server, you can type in IP name-server
00:02:20 - 4.2.2.2, and then I'll type in ip
00:02:24 - domain-lookup, which turns on name look up, and then you can
00:02:28 - actually ping things like google.com. See that?
00:02:32 - Says translating, it went to the DNS server and there's
00:02:35 - Google's IP address. If you don't give it a DNS server, it won't be
00:02:38 - able to resolve those names to IP addresses. So, you'll always
00:02:42 - have to ping by IP address. So that's pretty cool. All right, so we've got,
00:02:46 - we know we're connected to the Internet, we know that our router
00:02:49 - one can even get to Google, for crying out loud. So let's now
00:02:53 - do some other tests. I to make sure that router one can get
00:02:56 - to router two, and, and specifically, I'm going to be working on this host
00:03:00 - down here. I have a connection to him in the CISCO lab, so he
00:03:05 - is going to be our Internet host. So let's, let's make sure
00:03:08 - that we can ping that host. I'm gonna go to 192.168.10.50,
00:03:11 - and what that's gonna do is come
00:03:14 - into router one on fast ethernet zero, flip back around on a router
00:03:18 - on a stick out fast ethernet 0.10 into the switch
00:03:22 - and hit this host. So let's even go one step further, I'll do traceroute
00:03:27 - one and seven, or 192.168.10.50,
00:03:30 - that was the IP address, right? 192.168.10.50. All right. Good, and it, sure
00:03:36 - enough, there we go. It went through router two and then hit
00:03:40 - that host 10.50. So I'm at, I am able to ping that host. Now I happen
00:03:44 - to have a remote desktop connection to that host right here.
00:03:48 - Let me bring it in the picture.
00:03:51 - Actually, I'm may just kinda shrink things down. Get my QuickTime player
00:03:55 - out of there, and I'm going to do an ipconfig,
00:03:57 - and there, yup, this is the host 10.50. I'm gonna make sure
00:04:00 - that I can ping 192.169.10.1. It's
00:04:04 - good, and let's, let's even do a traceroute to 192.168.1.1,
00:04:08 - which is my Internet router, router one,
00:04:14 - and just verify ah, gotta love it.
00:04:16 - I'm gonna do traceroute -d. Windows always tries to look
00:04:21 - up names, which makes it hang there forever. So, in what I
00:04:25 - mean by names, it's trying to figure out what domain name 1.1
00:04:28 - really has, which it has none, so it hangs there for a long time. So
00:04:31 - -d ignores that, and you can see it went through router
00:04:35 - two, 10.1,
00:04:37 - and then reached router one. So I am getting to router one, so
00:04:42 - let's go ahead and do a trace. Let's, let's see if this host can
00:04:46 - get to our same DNS server, hang on,
00:04:51 - -d. All right. It went through 10.1, went to 1.1 and I'm
00:04:58 - dying. Asterisk, asterisk, asterisk, it's just gonna keep on asterisking,
00:05:04 - meaning, as soon as it got to 1.1, it died. Now if I
00:05:09 - were to actually pull out a packet sniffer right now, I would
00:05:12 - see these packets coming from this host, they'd, they'd be coming up through
00:05:17 - router two, going out, back up through router one, and they'd be actually
00:05:22 - getting sent out to the ISP, but remember, it's going
00:05:26 - out without NAT right now. The ISP is getting a private address, and it's
00:05:30 - saying you are denied; you are not allowed to come into the
00:05:34 - Internet, because all ISP's block private addresses. So what
00:05:38 - I have to do is I have to NAT my private address to a public
00:05:42 - address, so that it is able to go through and look as though
00:05:46 - it's coming from 171.98. Now that goes
00:05:50 - back to all the NAT concepts we talked about in the previous video.
00:05:54 - So we can see our, our request is getting nowhere, so I'm just gonna cancel
00:05:58 - that guy and shoot back up over here. Let's go to router
00:06:01 - one and implement NAT. You can see my steps to configure NAT
00:06:06 - overload. That will be the first one that we implement.
00:06:10 - A flyby review. NAT overload is the one that allows many
00:06:14 - internal hosts to share the same public IP addresses by using
00:06:18 - port numbers to distinguish between all of them, and we'll
00:06:20 - see that happen before our very eyes, with, with our client
00:06:24 - in VLAN 10 down here. So here's our steps. Number one,
00:06:28 - label the interfaces. We need to identify which interfaces represent
00:06:32 - the inside network and which one represents the outside. Second,
00:06:36 - we need to tell router one what is the valid internal
00:06:40 - IP addresses to be translated. We do that by using a access
00:06:45 - list, and this is why this video is after we talked about access
00:06:48 - lists, I'll show you that in a moment. Finally we turn on NAT overload.
00:06:52 - So here's what I'm gonna do. I'm gonna go step by step. Number one, label
00:06:56 - the interfaces. On router one, this is actually the easiest step. I'm gonna look at
00:07:00 - my interfaces. I see Ethernet 0/0 and 0/1. 0/0
00:07:05 - connects to the inside of my network, so I need to go under
00:07:08 - that interface, and type in the command, ip nat inside. That
00:07:13 - tells the router, that is my inside interface. I'll go under
00:07:16 - interface ethernet 0/1, which connects the outside of the
00:07:19 - network, and you probably are thinking what I'm thinking, ip nat
00:07:23 - outside.
00:07:25 - That connects to the outside of the network. That's it. That's
00:07:29 - step one, we've labeled the interfaces. Second step, identify internal
00:07:34 - IP addresses to be translated. Meaning, I need to tell my router
00:07:38 - one which IP addresses should be translated, and even what IP address shouldn't
00:07:43 - be translated. Maybe I don't want Internet access for these
00:07:46 - guys. Well, I could prevent them with an access list from getting
00:07:49 - out there, or I could just deny them from getting NATed out
00:07:53 - to the Internet. I do this by using a access list,
00:07:58 - and I'm going to use a named access list. It is much easier
00:08:04 - for me to identify. I'm gonna type in ip access-list,
00:08:09 - and it says, what kind of access list? Well, I would like a standard
00:08:12 - remember, a standard access list only allows you to permit or
00:08:16 - deny based on source addresses. Now, we've been thinking about
00:08:20 - access lists up till now as permitting or denying access, like
00:08:25 - you are denied from going through this router completely, but
00:08:28 - in this case, we're gonna to set up this access list to permit
00:08:31 - or deny people to be NATed. So, here's what we'll do. We'll
00:08:36 - go ahead and say, access-list standard, and we'll name it, you can
00:08:39 - see word, what name would you like? The word will be
00:08:44 - NAT_ADDRESSES.
00:08:48 - I always type my names in all capitals so I can identify them when running config
00:08:51 - pretty easily. Now underneath here I'm gonna do my permit and deny
00:08:55 - statements. I'm gonna say, permit, you know what, just, just for this example,
00:08:59 - I'm gonna permit everybody to be NATed.
00:09:03 - Know what? Except, just for fun of it, I'm, just like I had my arrow
00:09:09 - pointed over here, I'm going to deny these people from being NATed.
00:09:14 - So, I'm gonna put my deny first. I'm gonna say, instead of permit, deny
00:09:21 - 192.168.3.0. 0.0.0.255,
00:09:26 - that's my wild card mask, so the first thing I'm doing
00:09:30 - I'm denying these guys from being included in the NAT addresses,
00:09:33 - or addresses to be NATed. Now, I'm gonna go in and do a permit after
00:09:38 - that, 192.168.0.0 0.0.255.255
00:09:43 - is my wild card mask, which says,
00:09:46 - match everything that starts with 192.168, and
00:09:50 - I don't care what comes after that. Now because this is an
00:09:53 - ordered access list, I'll do a show access-list. It's going
00:09:57 - to deny these people first, if they come in, but if you are not
00:10:01 - this essentially says, if you are not 192.168.3.0,
00:10:04 - but you are anything that starts with
00:10:07 - 192.168, then you are permitted.
00:10:11 - That's my second step. I have now created an access list, which
00:10:15 - identifies internal IP addresses to be translated. Now the
00:10:19 - last step, enabling NAT overload. I can enable NAT overload
00:10:26 - by using the NAT command, and this is the biggest command that
00:10:30 - we have with NAT, and trust me, it, it will look confusing at first
00:10:34 - but I'll explain it in English. I'm gonna say, in global config
00:10:38 - ip nat, essentially I want a NAT. The router's gonna ask me, well, how do you want
00:10:42 - a NAT? I wanna NAT from the inside of my network
00:10:46 - outside, and I'm gonna say, based on the source address translation,
00:10:51 - the source addresses that I'm going translate are gonna
00:10:54 - be in access list, you can see access list, describing local
00:10:58 - addresses right here, in access list, and it says, well, what's the name
00:11:02 - of the access list? That name is NAT_ADDRESSES. Oops. Gonna paste the whole thing, there we go
00:11:09 - NAT_ADDRESSES. That's the list that identifies, and it says, well
00:11:13 - okay, do you wanna send that to a pool of global or public IP addresses,
00:11:18 - or do you just want to specify what interface those are going to be
00:11:21 - going out, and use the interface IP address. Well, in this example,
00:11:25 - for simplicity, I'm gonna use the interface. I'm gonna say, go ahead and send
00:11:28 - them out interface, and let's look back at our diagram, ethernet 0/1
00:11:32 - is our public interface. So I'll say, interface ethernet 0/1,
00:11:36 - and I'm going to follow that up by saying, please
00:11:41 - overload. Meaning, please allow multiple internal hosts to share
00:11:46 - this one IP address. So let me hit the upper arrow on that command, go back
00:11:50 - to the beginning. I'm gonna read it to you in plain English.
00:11:54 - ip nat says, I would like to NAT, and the router says, well
00:11:57 - how would you like to NAT? I would like to NAT from the inside
00:12:00 - of my network to the outside, the source addresses that I would
00:12:03 - like to NAT are identified in the access list's NAT addresses.
00:12:08 - Anything that's permitted by that access list, is going to
00:12:11 - be permitted to be NATed, and I would like to NAT them out
00:12:15 - interface ethernet 0/1, and please overload that address, if you, you
00:12:19 - can see, it's cut off here at the end, please overload that address, because if I
00:12:23 - don't include overload, only one host will be able to get out,
00:12:26 - and then it will say, okay, you've used up the address on interface
00:12:30 - ethernet 0/1, nobody else can use it, so use overload.
00:12:34 - Now I know, it's a very long line of syntax, but unfortunately
00:12:38 - that's the command you have to type in, and we'll, we'll keep seeing that
00:12:41 - as we look at the different forms of NAT. So at this point, our
00:12:45 - host should be able to get out.
00:12:50 - Ready to test it? I'm gonna hit that up arrow, let's do a traceroute, goes the router, goes the
00:12:56 - public IP address. Oh, ho, ho, ho. Look at that! Look at that!
00:12:58 - It's getting out. We have a, we have it going to router
00:13:03 - two, it goes to router one, it then goes to the next hop IP
00:13:08 - address, 68.110.171, I, I think I killed
00:13:12 - it. There we go, it's, it's still going. It's, it's trying to get to 4.2.2.2.
00:13:15 - It's ho, it's going around the whole Internet right now, trying to
00:13:19 - get to our DNS server, and finally it gets there. The ultimate
00:13:23 - test, of course, is to open up a web browser,
00:13:29 - on our client, oh, look at that! Beauty! Shrink it down right here, and verify
00:13:34 - that our little client right here can go to the best site in all
00:13:39 - the Internet. It's the CISCO blog. No, cbtnuggets.com.
00:13:43 - and I know my Internet connection is bogged down right
00:13:49 - now, but there, in the flesh, is CBT Nuggets.
00:13:54 - Now check this out. I'm going to take this another step and
00:13:58 - start verifying. Now on router one, we now have NAT translations
00:14:01 - going through, watch this. I do show ip nat
00:14:07 - translations. Oh my word, look at that. Look at this, look, okay,
00:14:13 - okay, okay, look at this. You have inside local, right? Inside local identifies
00:14:18 - the address inside of your network, and if you were to diagram
00:14:21 - this, the inside local addresses represents these guys. I'll put
00:14:25 - IL, IL. Anything that is inside, and a local, it's a
00:14:30 - private IP address inside my, my network. Inside global,
00:14:34 - and I always say, inside means whose control is it under? It's under
00:14:37 - my control, global versus local, that's
00:14:41 - public or, global is public, versus private. Look at what's happening
00:14:45 - here. My client, you see 10.50 is being translated
00:14:51 - to a 68.110.171.98. That
00:14:54 - is, the public IP address on router one. It's being translated
00:14:59 - to that, and notice, it's using that source port number to
00:15:03 - translate it through. Now notice it's, it's going, this, it's, it's going
00:15:07 - from the inside private to the, the inside global, that's
00:15:10 - the public address, then outside local and outside global, these
00:15:13 - will always be the same if we're, if we're doing this kind of NAT
00:15:16 - translation. You can see that it's going to this IP address,
00:15:19 - that IP address, this IP address, all these different IP
00:15:22 - addresses on port 80. That's the destination for it, that's
00:15:25 - our web surfing port.
00:15:27 - Initially, when I opened my web browser, it went to ah, to Firefox
00:15:31 - the, the little Firefox homepage, and, where did we go? We're right
00:15:35 - here, and it went to this page right here. Now this page is comprised
00:15:39 - of a, a graphic, a little Firefox guy here, a Google search field, we got
00:15:44 - some customization options down here, images, maps, blah, blah, blah, blah, blah.
00:15:48 - So when you're seeing these translations,
00:15:52 - we went to one website but we were probably redirected and got
00:15:55 - information from many different websites. That's why we see all
00:15:58 - these translations, even though we only went to
00:16:03 - google.com and cbtnuggets.com. So all these are the different websites,
00:16:08 - and as time pass, as time passes, you'll see that they are timing
00:16:11 - out, they're slowly fading because the connections are being severed.
00:16:14 - You also notice I have an ICMP message, that's my ping
00:16:18 - that I did it, to 4.2.2.2. When I, when
00:16:22 - I tested that, when I did my traceroute, to get to that server
00:16:26 - it was using ICMP, the ICMP protocol to do that. Isn't that amazing?
00:16:30 - I, I don't know, NAT always blows my mind, this NAT overload concept. I could,
00:16:34 - I could go in there and, it, I'm trying to think what else
00:16:38 - can I do?
00:16:40 - That's it. I, I can, that's NAT. It's, it's working, so all of these different
00:16:45 - clients on my network are able to get through except this one.
00:16:48 - This is what I wanted to emphasize. 192.168.3.whatever
00:16:51 - will not be allowed to get through, and
00:16:55 - the reason why is because the access list denies them. To, to
00:16:59 - simulate that, I'm gonna go over to router three, let's do a show ip interface brief,
00:17:03 - my little alias here, and I'm gonna type in, on router three, well, first off I'll do ping
00:17:08 - 4.2.2.2.
00:17:10 - Sure enough, router three can get there, and you might be thinking, well I
00:17:14 - thought router three was denied. Well, it is, if it's coming from
00:17:18 - an IP address on this LAN, but router three came from
00:17:22 - 192.168.2.2. Matter of fact, let's check it. Jump back to router one, show IP
00:17:28 - nat translations,
00:17:31 - and, right there, notice 192.168.2.2 was using ICMP
00:17:36 - to ping that DNS server. So that was allowed to get
00:17:40 - through. Let's try this. I'm gonna go back to router three and do a ping
00:17:45 - 4.2.2.2, but I'm gonna follow that up with a source
00:17:49 - interface of, oh what
00:17:51 - interface was that? Ethernet 0/0. That's the one that connects to
00:17:55 - the LAN, ethernet 0/0.
00:17:59 - Now you can see, we're dying because it's pinging from a
00:18:02 - source address, it's coming from a source of 3.1,
00:18:05 - and if I were to jump over to my router one, and do a show, let's do
00:18:11 - a show access-list.
00:18:13 - You can see my NAT, my NAT addresses, 10, sequence
00:18:17 - 10, denied 192.168.3.0, and I've
00:18:21 - had five matches. Hmm. Five pings that came from router
00:18:25 - three. The permit, everything else that started with 0, 0,
00:18:28 - had twenty three matches. Those are being permitted to
00:18:31 - be NATed. Now I want to make sure we catch something here before
00:18:34 - I move on to the other forms of NAT. When I created that access
00:18:38 - list to identify the internal addresses to be translated, that's
00:18:42 - exactly what it's doing, permitting or denying them to be translated.
00:18:46 - Router three is coming out here, it's going tuk-a-tuk-a-tuk-a-tuk-a-tuk-a all the
00:18:48 - the way through the network,
00:18:51 - when I pinged from this source of 3.1, and router
00:18:54 - one's getting it, and it says, you are denied
00:18:58 - from being NATed, not denied from being routed. So router one
00:19:04 - is sending those packets out from router three. When I did this little,
00:19:09 - I did it again, my, my screen jumped. I don't know how I do that. Anyhow, let me see if I can fix this here.
00:19:15 - When I went into router three,
00:19:20 - and I did this ping right here from a source of 3.1,
00:19:25 - 3.1 was allowed through,
00:19:29 - it was just denied from NATing. So if I were to go to my ISP,
00:19:33 - if I had some kind of packet sniffer at my ISP, I would see packets
00:19:37 - coming in from 192.168.3.1. It was not denied
00:19:40 - from routing, it was denied from being NATed, so I wanted
00:19:42 - to make sure I specify and emphasize that that's what that
00:19:45 - access list really does. All right, so that is NAT overload. Now
00:19:50 - let's talk about static NAT.
00:19:53 - Static NAT is what allows me to create mappings to
00:19:57 - let internal hosts be accessible from the outside.
00:20:02 - What I mean by that is, right now we have a NAT barrier, which
00:20:06 - is a form of security on my network. Meaning, nobody can get
00:20:10 - into my network without first being invited from an internal
00:20:13 - host. Meaning if this, this smiley guy down here didn't go out
00:20:17 - to the Internet and say, CNN, I would like your web page,
00:20:20 - CNN would never be able to come back in and say, here's a, here's
00:20:23 - a web page. So NAT, in essence, is an impenetrable form of security,
00:20:29 - because the outside cannot access the inside. Now I wanna make
00:20:34 - sure I emphasize that NAT security is not the only kind of
00:20:38 - security that you can have. The, it needs to be combined
00:20:41 - with many things, it's not perfect security is what I'm trying to say.
00:20:44 - So, what I can do is, let's say that this smiley host down here
00:20:48 - is a web server, and I want to allow people to access that
00:20:52 - web server from the Internet.
00:20:55 - Well, I need to create a static NAT mapping that maps this
00:21:00 - host to a public IP address in order for people to be able
00:21:05 - to access him. Now, first things first, you need to make sure
00:21:08 - that you get public IP addresses from your ISP. As of right
00:21:12 - now I have 1, 68.110.171.98
00:21:15 - assigned to that interface, but if I wanted to be
00:21:18 - able to have servers on the inside of my network, I would typically,
00:21:22 - or normally, I'll show you a way around this, but I would normally want to
00:21:25 - go to my ISP and say, ISP, I would like to get more IP
00:21:28 - addresses, and they will say, we will charge you this much a month,
00:21:31 - and you say, okay, and they will say, okay, you can have a,
00:21:35 - 68.110.171, one seven one,.99,
00:21:40 - and.100. You know these different IP addresses
00:21:43 - that you can use for your internal network. So let's say, just
00:21:47 - for ease of this example, and I'll show you some cool ways around
00:21:49 - this, let's say they, they gave us 99, right, and I want
00:21:54 - 99 to map to my internal web server. That's gonna
00:21:57 - to require a static NAT mapping. The way that I do it,
00:22:01 - is I move to global config mode on my NAT router, and
00:22:05 - I say, ip nat. That says, I want a NAT, I want a NAT from the inside
00:22:10 - of my network. Now, I know you might be thinking, I thought that
00:22:13 - would be outside, I thought you were NATing from the outside
00:22:16 - to the inside. Well, you are in a way, and you could do it by typing
00:22:20 - ip nat outside, and then say, this address to this address,
00:22:24 - but really, when you start working with NAT, it's best just to use
00:22:28 - one direction. When I say, ip nat inside, that says I'm gonna NAT
00:22:32 - from the inside of my network out, which is true, but anytime
00:22:36 - you do that, you're actually creating two-way NAT mappings.
00:22:39 - So it will NAT from the inside to the outside, but it will also
00:22:42 - NAT from the outside to the inside. So you might wonder, well, why I would
00:22:46 - I use NAT outside?
00:22:48 - Good question. I never do. As long as you, you learn one direction
00:22:53 - and get comfortable with that, you never have to use the other.
00:22:56 - You could also start with NAT outside, say, I, you know, I wanna
00:23:00 - use NAT outside, and use NAT outside for anything, and never
00:23:02 - use NAT inside. I just always like using inside, because it
00:23:05 - makes more sense to me. So, I'm saying, I want a NAT from the inside,
00:23:09 - and it says, well, what, what do you want to translate? I wanna translate
00:23:12 - the source address, when somebody comes in, and I'm gonna make this
00:23:15 - a static NAT mapping, notice it says local to global.
00:23:19 - Let me stop right there. If I would have said, ip nat outside,
00:23:25 - all it would do is say, well, you wanna map global to local, so you would just
00:23:29 - type the outside address first, and then the inside address second.
00:23:33 - Typing ip nat inside, will let you type the inside address, or local address
00:23:36 - first, and the outside address second. That's really the only difference
00:23:39 - between the two. It's just what direction are you looking from,
00:23:42 - what, what direction do you prefer, but functionally, they're the same.
00:23:47 - So, this is going to be a static mapping,
00:23:50 - and I'm going to map the inside local IP address
00:23:57 - 192.168.10.50. That's my little guy
00:24:01 - down here, smiling guy.
00:24:03 - He's my web server. I wanna NAT him to the outside IP
00:24:08 - address 68.110.171.99,
00:24:12 - that's the new IP address that my ISP
00:24:15 - gave me, and or sold me, and allowed me to use on the Internet
00:24:19 - as long as I'm using them. That point, I hit Enter. I've now created
00:24:24 - a static NAT mapping. Now this is where I want to explain
00:24:27 - what I mean by two-way. Any time this inside host decides
00:24:33 - I would like to access the Internet, 10.50. He will
00:24:36 - go out, and go to router one and go out and be seen on the Internet
00:24:39 - as this address, 68.110.171.99.
00:24:45 - Likewise, anytime anyone on the Internet accesses that address
00:24:51 - 71.99, router one will get that and translate it
00:24:55 - back to the inside host. That's what I mean by two-way mapping,
00:24:59 - it goes in, and it comes out. So, let me do a show ip nat translation,
00:25:05 - and you can see, all my translations have timed out. This is a
00:25:09 - static. It says, any time somebody accesses that, it will become
00:25:13 - that, and any time this one accesses the Internet, it will
00:25:16 - become that, and be sent out as that. Now you can see this doesn't have
00:25:20 - any IP addresses, because as of right now, nobody is accessing
00:25:24 - that, nobody is, is
00:25:27 - accessing this IP address right here, and so when somebody
00:25:31 - does, if somebody does access my "website", their IP address
00:25:35 - will show up here, because they will be NATed to my inside address
00:25:38 - right here. That is known as simple static NAT mapping.
00:25:44 - Now I mentioned I was going to show you a way to kind of overcome
00:25:47 - this, like, you know, we only, let's say you're with a company
00:25:50 - and they only have one IP address from an ISP, and either the
00:25:54 - ISP will not give you any more IP addresses, because
00:25:57 - some of them work that way, or the company does not want to
00:26:00 - buy any more IP addresses, because it can get kind of expensive.
00:26:04 - What we can do, is we can use the IP address that we have
00:26:10 - on our public interface right here, the 68.110.171.98
00:26:13 - and use it as somewhat of a static
00:26:18 - NAT mapping. Let me show you how this works. We're, right now,
00:26:22 - using this for NAT overload, and let me first go in;
00:26:27 - I'm going to remove this static NAT mapping, no, put a no at the beginning. So
00:26:31 - that one's gone. Go back, verify, show ip nat translations,
00:26:35 - we've got nothing. All right, we've removed our static NAT mapping, and
00:26:38 - we only have one IP address, and I would like to use that IP address
00:26:42 - to still allow access to the web server. Well, as of right now that IP
00:26:46 - address is being used for NAT overload, so as hosts surf the net
00:26:49 - they're going to be seen as that IP address. So I can't statically
00:26:54 - map that whole IP address to the web server. This is what
00:26:57 - we know as static port mappings. Watch this. You may have seen
00:27:02 - it when I was doing the command before. I'll type in ip nat inside
00:27:06 - source static. This is same thing as before, same command,
00:27:09 - but I'm gonna hit the question mark. Now when I did the last example, right
00:27:14 - here, I typed in the private IP address.
00:27:18 - Now I'm gonna do something a little bit different. I'm gonna type a protocol.
00:27:22 - I'm gonna statically map TCP
00:27:26 - to the inside local, the private IP address, 192.168.10.50,
00:27:30 - and I'm gonna map port 80
00:27:35 - to the outside global. It says what is the global IP address,
00:27:39 - 68.110.171., or wait a sec,
00:27:45 - I'm not gonna do that. I only have my interface, the IP address on my interface,
00:27:49 - right? 68.110.171.98, so instead of mapping it to a different
00:27:53 - global IP address, I'm gonna map it to the IP address on the interface,
00:27:57 - and I'll say, interface ethernet, was it 0/0? 0/1.
00:28:05 - 0/1, question mark, port 80. You see what's happening
00:28:10 - here? What I'm doing is, any time my outside interface, 0/1,
00:28:16 - my Internet facing interface, gets a request on
00:28:20 - port 80. Now what's TCP port 80? Web services, right?
00:28:24 - That's http. It will translate that request to the inside IP address,
00:28:29 - 192.168.10.50 on its port 80.
00:28:35 - That's pretty hot, because now, when I go back here, I'll do show
00:28:38 - ip nat translations. I can see that this translation is happening
00:28:42 - oh, it looks like we had some other, our little host went out and accessed
00:28:46 - a time server, but
00:28:50 - we're not gonna talk about that. This is my static NAT mapping, I've got http, nobody's
00:28:55 - using it as of right now, but the host can still, let's, let's ah, let's bring
00:28:59 - my ah, host back to the stage. Our host can still, let's go
00:29:05 - to ah, www.ciscoblog.com,
00:29:09 - only the coolest blog on the Internet, and, you know, we're accessing
00:29:14 - the CISCO blog, minimize that guy and, wait a sec, minimize this
00:29:17 - whole thing, come back here and do a show ip nat translations, we're
00:29:20 - still accessing the Internet, we're still overloading, but
00:29:24 - we're now borrowing one port from that public IP address, and giving
00:29:27 - it to that host. Now this gives us a lot of flexibility guys, look at this.
00:29:31 - I just assigned port 80 on that IP address. If anybody
00:29:35 - from the Internet accesses that on port 80, it'll forward
00:29:38 - into my client, but I could totally split that address
00:29:41 - apart to access all kinds of things, like let's say, let's say
00:29:44 - this is an email server, email, and that I have inside of
00:29:48 - my company. That email services used TCP port 25, known
00:29:52 - as SMTP, simple mail transfer protocol. I could assign
00:29:56 - port 25 of that public IP address to a totally different
00:30:01 - internal host. I could split apart an IP address for however
00:30:05 - many services I really wanted to use. It's very powerful, because
00:30:09 - with simple static NAT, you dedicate a full public IP to a
00:30:12 - full private IP, and you may only use one or two ports
00:30:15 - off of that. Well, why not use each public IP address to the
00:30:19 - max? That's what that port static nat mapping is all about.
00:30:23 - So you can, you can split it up in many different ways. So we've
00:30:26 - talked about NAT overload, we talked about static NAT. There
00:30:31 - is one more concept I want to show you, and this is for
00:30:34 - larger companies.
00:30:36 - It is dynamic NAT with overload. Now, as of right now, I'm gonna
00:30:40 - do a, a show run, and I'm gonna include lines that have IP nat in them,
00:30:45 - because I just want to filter it down, and there's, there's my ah, my
00:30:51 - command that I typed in to NAT the private IP addresses
00:30:54 - in that access list, to the interface and overload it. That's
00:30:58 - NAT overload, but I'm gonna remove that, and
00:31:03 - do a copy, global config, put no paste and paste that in there.
00:31:08 - So this dynamic mappings are in use, do you want to kill them all? It means, there's some
00:31:13 - people using that right now, are you sure you want to do that? Yep, sorry, Internet
00:31:16 - has gone down. So we now have a clean slate, and I want to show you
00:31:20 - how you can configure dynamic NAT meaning, poh, multiple
00:31:24 - public IP addresses using NAT overload. What I can do is I
00:31:29 - can approach this a little different. Instead of using the
00:31:33 - public IP address on the interface, I can create an ip nat pool.
00:31:36 - You can see I can type ip nat pool, says what would you like
00:31:41 - to name it? I'll say PUBLIC_ADDRESSES,
00:31:47 - do a space question mark, it says, what start IP address would you
00:31:50 - like to put in that pool, and I'll say, well let's say we purchased
00:31:53 - IP addresses from our ISP, the 68.110.171.99
00:31:57 - and one hundred, I'll put 68.110.171.99,
00:32:02 - and the
00:32:04 - end IP address will be 68.110.171.100.
00:32:08 - Those are our public IP addresses that we've
00:32:11 - gotten. To a question mark it says, what, you can either type in
00:32:14 - the net mask, meaning the decimal subnet mask, or the prefix length.
00:32:20 - What it means by prefix length is, what bit notation /24/32,
00:32:24 - that kind of thing. I'll just put, you know it's only looking for
00:32:26 - the number, so 24, which means, let's say, class C subnet
00:32:30 - mask, or this is a preference, you can also use the net
00:32:33 - mask option and type in the decimal subnet mask, 255.255.255.0. Okay.
00:32:37 - So what I've done is I've created a NAT pool
00:32:41 - of two addresses. Now I can use that same command that I
00:32:47 - used before,
00:32:48 - and I'll type it in again, ip nat inside source, to, to turn on NAT overload
00:32:53 - right? I'm gonna do a source list, the access list was
00:32:58 - NAT_ADDRESSES.
00:33:02 - Right, that was the access list we created, I wanna NAT from that access
00:33:05 - list. Now before, we were going specifically out in interface,
00:33:09 - using whatever public IP address we had on that interface.
00:33:12 - The advantage of that is it's very simple, and you only need one
00:33:15 - public IP address. The disadvantage, well there's not a real disadvantage,
00:33:19 - but the problem is, is if you have a very large company, it will
00:33:24 - eventually run out of ports. Meaning, as you get hundreds and thousands
00:33:27 - of hosts on the inside of your network, surfing the Internet,
00:33:30 - this will run out of ports that it can use on that public
00:33:33 - IP address, and it'll start killing NAT sessions and
00:33:36 - people will kind of lose their connection to the Internet from time
00:33:39 - to time. So what we can do is give a pool of two public addresses
00:33:43 - that we created, so I can say, go ahead and use that pool when one
00:33:47 - of them is full, meaning there's enough people using that, switch
00:33:50 - over the next one. So if I wanted to do that, I would just say,
00:33:54 - I wanna, I want to NAT, I'll read this in English, ip nat, I want to
00:33:57 - NAT from the inside of my network, that is identified as the
00:34:02 - source IP addresses in access list NAT_ADDRESSES. Now I wanna NAT
00:34:06 - them to the pool of addresses that I just created, the name
00:34:10 - of the pool
00:34:14 - is PUBLIC_ADDRESSES, ip nat pool PUBLIC_ADDRESSES, and
00:34:18 - then, I would like to overload that pool. If you forget the
00:34:21 - overload keyword, what's gonna happen is it's going to allow
00:34:24 - two people, meaning the two public addresses that you have, to access
00:34:28 - the Internet, and then it'll say, sorry, we're out of public IP addresses.
00:34:31 - That is known as dynamic NAT with overload. You're dynamically
00:34:36 - going from a group of addresses to a group of other addresses,
00:34:39 - a group of private to a group of public, and we're overloading it so
00:34:42 - when one of those public addresses get full, it will fail over
00:34:45 - to the second one. That is NAT in all its flavors.
00:34:50 - Still to this day, I think NAT is one of the most fun
00:34:54 - configurations that you can do on a CISCO router. I, I don't
00:34:57 - know why, I just, I just think it's, it's such a neat concept. So let's
00:35:02 - wrap things up. We saw configuring NAT overload, that was the
00:35:05 - first thing that we did, labelling our inside and outside interfaces,
00:35:08 - creating a private IP address access list, or what addresses
00:35:12 - we would like to translate, and then combining all that in
00:35:15 - the ip nat command to enable overload. We then configured
00:35:19 - static NAT to allow outside access to our internal IP addresses,
00:35:23 - and then finally, we saw a dynamic NAT, which is going from
00:35:26 - private IP addresses to a pool of public IP addresses,
00:35:31 - and we combine that with overload, so that when one of them
00:35:34 - ran out of port numbers, the other one could take over. I hope
00:35:38 - this has been informative for you, and I'd like to thank you for viewing.

WAN Connections: Concepts of VPN Technology

WAN Connections: Implementing PPP Authentication

WAN Connections: Understanding Frame Relay

WAN Connections: Configuring Frame Relay

IPv6: Understanding Basic Concepts and Addressing

IPv6: Configuring, Routing, and Interoperating

Certification: Some Last Words for Test Takers

Advanced TCP/IP: Working with Binary

Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 1

Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 2

Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 3

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Jeremy Cioara

Jeremy Cioara

CBT Nuggets Trainer

Certifications:
Cisco CCNA, CCDA, CCNA Security, CCNA Voice, CCNP, CCSP, CCVP, CCDP, CCIE R&S; Amazon Web Services CSA; Microsoft MCP, MCSE, Novell CNA, CNE; CompTIA A+, Network+, iNet+

Area Of Expertise:
Cisco network administration and development. Author or coauthor of numerous books, including: CCNA Voice 640-461 Official Cert Guide; CCNA Voice Official Exam Certification Guide (640-460 IIUC); CCENT Exam Prep (Exam 640-822); CCNA Exam Cram (Exam 640-802) 3rd Edition; and CCNA Voice 640-461 Official Cert Guide.


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