Cisco CCNA ICND2 640-816

Switch STP: Enhancements to STP

by Jeremy Cioara

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Video Title Duration
1. Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 1
00:33:54
2. Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 2
00:28:45
3. Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 3
00:23:36
4. Switch VLANs: Understanding VLANs
00:16:09
5. Switch VLANs: Understanding Trunks and VTP
00:39:07
6. Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 1
00:35:58
7. Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 2
00:39:36
8. Switch STP: Understanding the Spanning-Tree Protocol
00:28:18
9. Switch STP: Configuring Basic STP
00:21:16
10. Switch STP: Enhancements to STP
00:29:54
11. General Switching: Troubleshooting and Security Best Practices
00:29:23
12. Subnetting: Understanding VLSM
00:18:42
13. Routing Protocols: Distance Vector vs. Link State
00:26:25
14. Routing Protocols: OSPF Concepts
00:30:36
15. Routing Protocols: OSPF Configuration and Troubleshooting
00:39:53
16. Routing Protocols: EIGRP Concepts and Configuration
00:32:28
17. Access-Lists: The Rules of the ACL
00:27:44
18. Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs
00:34:40
19. Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs, Part 2
00:48:42
20. NAT: Understanding the Three Styles of NAT
00:20:00
21. NAT: Command-line NAT Configuration
00:35:41
22. WAN Connections: Concepts of VPN Technology
00:33:20
23. WAN Connections: Implementing PPP Authentication
00:34:39
24. WAN Connections: Understanding Frame Relay
00:28:42
25. WAN Connections: Configuring Frame Relay
00:30:52
26. IPv6: Understanding Basic Concepts and Addressing
00:33:59
27. IPv6: Configuring, Routing, and Interoperating
00:23:36
28. Certification: Some Last Words for Test Takers
00:13:10
29. Advanced TCP/IP: Working with Binary
00:25:51
30. Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 1
00:55:06
31. Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 2
00:22:29
32. Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 3
00:19:53

Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 1

Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 2

Review: Rebuilding the Small Office Network, Part 3

Switch VLANs: Understanding VLANs

Switch VLANs: Understanding Trunks and VTP

Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 1

Switch VLANs: Configuring VLANs and VTP, Part 2

Switch STP: Understanding the Spanning-Tree Protocol

Switch STP: Configuring Basic STP

Switch STP: Enhancements to STP

00:00:00 - As with all network technologies, as Spanning Tree has been
00:00:03 - used over the years it has evolved and it has enhanced. So what we're
00:00:08 - going to do now is take a look at the modern versions of Spanning
00:00:11 - Tree and some of the enhancements to the Spanning Tree process.
00:00:14 - First thing we'll start with is the Spanning Tree protocol port transitioning
00:00:18 - process. Meaning, why does it take so long for Spanning Tree to
00:00:22 - make a port go active. We'll then look at the initial enhancements
00:00:26 - to Spanning Tree that CISCO introduced, which is a per-VLAN
00:00:29 - Spanning Tree instance. That was the initial one that was introduced
00:00:33 - a few years back -- quite a few years back -- to allow Spanning Tree
00:00:36 - to optimize your network. We'll then look at the newest and
00:00:41 - ultimate enhancement to Spanning Tree, which is known as the
00:00:44 - rapid Spanning Tree protocol, allowing your network to converge
00:00:47 - much faster. We'll also demonstrate some of the features that
00:00:52 - rapid Spanning Tree does, and we'll try the network failure
00:00:54 - that we did in the previous video with rapid Spanning Tree
00:00:57 - enabled and see how long it takes to fail over.
00:01:01 - Well if you watched the previous video on Spanning Tree
00:01:04 - configuration, the original Spanning Tree, I think you realize
00:01:08 - that Spanning Tree has some problems. Well it's not so much
00:01:12 - problems as it is, it was just created a long time ago. When
00:01:17 - things weren't expected to move so fast, when people could
00:01:21 - it and enjoy a cup of coffee and shake your hand and look you
00:01:23 - in the eye and have a conversation. Not so nowadays. People just
00:01:27 - walk right by and how you doing, okay, great, on their way they go. And
00:01:30 - the same way with networks. Networks are expected to diverge like
00:01:34 - that, speed of light. If there's a problem, fix it; and fix
00:01:38 - it fast enough that nobody notices. So here's the problem with Spanning
00:01:42 - Tree. In its original creation, it went through two individual
00:01:46 - phases before it would actually start forwarding. You'll notice this
00:01:50 - on every single CISCO switch, when you pull it out of the box
00:01:52 - and plug a device in, the little light above the port will
00:01:56 - stay orange or that amber color until about 30 seconds
00:02:00 - go by. The initial 15 seconds, the switch is going through
00:02:05 - the listening phase. And all it's doing during those
00:02:08 - 15 seconds is listening for BPDUs. this which
00:02:12 - thought process: it thinks if you plug a device in, that
00:02:16 - device could very well be another switch that could cause a
00:02:19 - loop in the network. It might have some redundant connections
00:02:21 - I don't know about yet. So it's going to wait 15 seconds,
00:02:25 - listening to that port to see if it sees another switch's
00:02:28 - language, those BPDUs coming back through. If it does and this
00:02:33 - sport is not allowing BPDUs, it'll shut the port down. But if 15
00:02:37 - seconds goes by and no BPDUs are received, it will
00:02:41 - transition to the learning phase. Now you might
00:02:45 - remember when we were doing the previous video on configuring
00:02:48 - Spanning Tree and I caused the failure, I shut down one of the
00:02:51 - ports, you can actually watch the port. When you do the show
00:02:55 - Spanning Tree command, it's showing you the port status going
00:02:58 - through this listening or LIS is how it abbreviates it in
00:03:01 - the switch. It then transitions to learning, where it's trying
00:03:04 - to learn the MAC address that is on that port. See, if it makes
00:03:09 - the port active without knowing what MAC address is actually
00:03:12 - on that port, it's going to be very inefficient because it's
00:03:16 - going to have to start forwarding all of the packets everywhere
00:03:18 - since it doesn't really know what is on that port. So it takes
00:03:22 - another 15 seconds to learn what MAC addresses are on
00:03:27 - there. Fifteen seconds is more than enough time for a PC or
00:03:31 - a server or whatever you have plugged in to send at least one
00:03:34 - packet with its source MAC address on there and allow the switch
00:03:37 - to populate the CAM table. So 30 seconds later, the port
00:03:41 - finally transitions to forwarding and that's where the light changes
00:03:44 - from amber to green. Now that's going to cause a lot of problems
00:03:48 - in networks because -- well, I'll talk about those in just a
00:03:51 - moment. I want to talk down here about the blocking phase. I call
00:03:56 - this the bonus timer. When you have a port, let's say
00:04:00 - that you have -- let's do this, you've got a switch connected to
00:04:04 - another switch connected to another switch, just like our topology
00:04:06 - we've been working with, and we'll say that these
00:04:09 - two are active right here. This is the blocked one. Well as soon
00:04:13 - as you shut this down, the switch will implement a bonus time
00:04:18 - it's not really called that, I just call it that -- where it waits about
00:04:21 - 20 seconds before it moves a blocked port into a listening
00:04:25 - phase. What it's waiting for is it wants to see if this is coming
00:04:30 - back on line. Have you heard of a flapping interface? That's
00:04:33 - what it's waiting for. When that port goes off, meaning that
00:04:37 - it becomes disabled right here, well Spanning Tree's gonna go,
00:04:40 - well before I transition everything over, let's just wait to
00:04:43 - see if it comes back on line. I mean that could be just an administrator
00:04:47 - unplugging the port to look at the cable and plugging it back
00:04:49 - in. There is no need to upset the whole network if that port
00:04:52 - is just going to get plugged right back in. So you can see a bonus timer
00:04:56 - of up to 20 seconds, it could be a little less, but it won't
00:05:00 - go above 20, will be implemented whenever there's a failure.
00:05:03 - So what does that mean? That means that if this fails, this
00:05:08 - port before it will go active will first go through its blocking
00:05:11 - time down here, then transition to a listening state, then the
00:05:16 - transition to a learning state to learn the MAC address and then
00:05:19 - move on over to forwarding. That is up to 50 seconds of downtime
00:05:24 - per port before it can go active.
00:05:27 - These Spanning Tree delays cause two problems in our network.
00:05:31 - Number one is the problem with PCs. Modern PCs can boot faster
00:05:36 - than 30 seconds. Meaning if you get the killer laptop or
00:05:40 - brand new desktop, it's going to be able to out-boot
00:05:43 - the timer for Spanning Tree. So the port won't be active when
00:05:48 - the laptop is ready to go. Now it seems like a simple promise, like
00:05:51 - well, wait 30 seconds before you surf the internet or
00:05:54 - something, right. Well the problem is that when these PCs
00:05:57 - are booting up, they're sending out DHCP requests to get an IP address
00:06:02 - most of the time. So as they're sending out DHCP requests
00:06:05 - not getting your reply so in business now work most people
00:06:08 - are using Windows XP Professional or Windows Vista Business,
00:06:12 - and you get the little press Control Alt Delete to log on. The user
00:06:16 - goes to log on to their PC, username, type that in, password,
00:06:21 - type that in and hit Enter, and it says, sorry, the domain controllers
00:06:25 - not available, or I could not contact the domain controller
00:06:28 - Because the computer doesn't have an IP address yet. Usually
00:06:31 - when the DHCP request fails, the computer will just kind of
00:06:34 - go in this standby state where it's going to still trying and get an IP address,
00:06:37 - but it'll just wait 30 seconds or so to send out another
00:06:40 - request for an IP address. So the PCs are not able to log on to
00:06:44 - the network. The solution to that issue is portfast. If you
00:06:50 - played with CISCO's switches before, chances are you've heard
00:06:53 - of portfast. This is the cool that essentially disable spanning
00:06:58 - Tree. It turns it off on the port. And I went ahead and we'll
00:07:02 - type this in on some live switches, but I wanted to show
00:07:05 - you the warning message that you get when you type this command
00:07:08 - underneath the port. It's like a little essay that it gives you in the
00:07:12 - IOS. It says, Warning: it should not be unenabled -- or should be
00:07:16 - enabled only on ports connected to a single host. Connecting
00:07:19 - hubs, concentrators, switches, bridges, et cetera to this interface
00:07:23 - when portfast is enabled, can cause temporary bridging loops. Use with
00:07:27 - caution. So that's the warning to you, is that you are turning
00:07:31 - off Spanning Tree on this port. So the port will go active right
00:07:35 - away as soon as you plug in the device, but that could cause
00:07:38 - loops in the network. The other issue that Spanning Tree causes
00:07:43 - is that it has problems with uplink ports, meaning ports connecting
00:07:46 - to other switches. Fifty seconds of downtime in any networking
00:07:50 - cause big problems. There's a lot that can go wrong during that. The
00:07:53 - solution to that issue is the new version of Spanning Tree,
00:07:57 - Rapid Spanning Tree.
00:08:00 - Now before we get into what Rapid Spanning Tree is all about, let's
00:08:04 - first talk about the initial enhancement that CISCO made it
00:08:07 - to the normal Spanning Tree protocol. What CISCO created was
00:08:11 - a different version called PVST, that's per-VLAN Spanning
00:08:16 - Tree plus, that's CISCO's little enhancement to it to say, per-VLAN Spanning
00:08:21 - Tree by default when they first created it was only support
00:08:23 - on CISCO switches. Now it's only -- now it's become essentially
00:08:27 - an industry standard that anybody can do. But what CISCO's
00:08:30 - initial enhancement did to Spanning Tree is allow you to run
00:08:33 - an instance of Spanning Tree per VLAN.
00:08:39 - As if Spanning Tree wasn't confusing enough already, there's going
00:08:43 - to be many instances of Spanning Tree running. Here is the
00:08:46 - idea behind it. Down here I have our little topology that
00:08:49 - we're using in our network with three switches. Now in our network
00:08:53 - diagram, this one right here became the root bridge. Now ignore
00:08:57 - my little notes over here for just a moment. But just imagine
00:09:00 - that is the root bridge for everybody. What will happen is these
00:09:04 - will be the active links that are used between the two switches.
00:09:07 - This one ends up being disabled until it's needed because of
00:09:10 - a network failure. So what that means is everybody's going
00:09:13 - through the root to communicate as it should be, right. But if
00:09:17 - you think about it, you just disabled a potentially useful link in your
00:09:22 - network. Meaning this is going to be completely unused,
00:09:26 - but it would be handy if we could use it for at least some of our
00:09:29 - network traffic.
00:09:32 - That's what per-VLAN Spanning Tree is all about. What we
00:09:36 - can do is have separate Spanning Tree topologies for each
00:09:41 - VLAN that we're creating. For example, you can see my notes
00:09:45 - it allows different root bridges per VLAN. Essentially
00:09:48 - I can say this top switch is the root for VLAN 10 traffic.
00:09:53 - And what that means is for VLAN 10, these are going to
00:09:56 - be the active links and those will be used and no VLAN
00:09:59 - 10 traffic will ever cross this link over here. But I can
00:10:02 - set a separate root, thus the per VLAN Spanning Tree
00:10:07 - for other VLANs. So I can say the root for VLAN 20 is this switch
00:10:11 - right here, and if we did that the new topology looks like
00:10:15 - this. These are the -- I should -- hang on, let me do this.
00:10:20 - These are the active ports for VLAN 20 and this
00:10:25 - one ends up becoming disabled so VLAN 20 will never crosses
00:10:28 - link. What you're doing is almost a manual system of load
00:10:33 - balancing, so that VLAN 20 will start using this link
00:10:36 - that was typically unused before and still is on the phone
00:10:40 - and VLAN 10 will be using this link which is completely
00:10:43 - unused for VLAN 20. So now you've got 100 mega bits
00:10:47 - per second of dedicated bandwidth -- excuse me -- on that line for VLAN
00:10:50 - 20 and you've got 100 mega bits per second of dedicated
00:10:53 - bandwidth on that line for VLAN 10. You can do that for all
00:10:58 - the VLANs in your network. Now you can start seeing why in
00:11:01 - large networks -- man, can this be complex. You essentially
00:11:06 - can draw a separate diagram for every single VLAN that
00:11:10 - you could have. I mean, if you were drawing this out I could
00:11:13 - say, okay, well this is my VLAN 10 topology and highlight my
00:11:16 - active links for VLAN 10. I could then draw another picture
00:11:19 - over here, you know, these are my VLAN 20 topology,
00:11:23 - where we have active links right here and this one's disabled.
00:11:26 - And you could create a separate network diagram for every
00:11:29 - VLAN that you have. As a matter of fact, let me show you what this looks
00:11:32 - like on the live switches.
00:11:35 - We'll bring up my connection to switch one, and there we are.
00:11:39 - Now if you remember from the previous video when I did the initial
00:11:41 - Spanning Tree configuration, the command was show Spanning
00:11:45 - Tree and you just hit Enter. And during that video -- I have a confession
00:11:48 - to make -- I wasn't showing you the whole story. Whenever I saw this
00:11:53 - more symbol right there I just hit Q on the keyboard and say, see, look, this
00:11:56 - is how Spanning Tree's working. That's because in this video, I want
00:12:00 - to show you the rest of it. I'll hit the show Spanning Tree and
00:12:03 - you can see VLAN 1, we have the root ID, this is the
00:12:07 - root, this is switch one and so on. But watch what happens
00:12:10 - if I hit Space.
00:12:13 - Well look at this. It says for VLAN 10 I am not the root.
00:12:17 - There's another root out there that is -- my guess is
00:12:21 - that it's switch two, because that was the original root, because
00:12:25 - when we were adjusting the priority, we said that that or with
00:12:30 - the command we used was spanning tree and then I would type
00:12:33 - in VLAN 1 because I said we're using VLAN 1
00:12:36 - everywhere, which adjusted the priority for this as the
00:12:39 - root bridge on VLAN 1, but didn't adjust it for VLAN 10.
00:12:44 - and VLAN 20 and 30 and all these other
00:12:48 - ones that we're using. Look at this, VLAN 1, VLAN 10, that's
00:12:52 - I think our sales VLAN and you can see all the information
00:12:55 - there. VLAN 20, all the information there. VLAN 30,
00:12:59 - all the information right there. You can see it's
00:13:02 - the only VLAN that this is a root on is VLAN 1 and
00:13:05 - that's all VLANs we have. So by default, the CISCO switch is
00:13:09 - running per-VLAN Spanning Tree plus. So it's running an instance
00:13:13 - on every
00:13:14 - VLAN. So if you wanted to set this to be the root bridge
00:13:18 - on all the VLANs, you need to type in Spanning Tree VLAN and
00:13:21 - you can see question mark. I can type in a range of VLANs.
00:13:25 - I was just typing in one, but we can also say one, 10, 20, 30,
00:13:30 - and then do a question mark and do, you know, this will be
00:13:33 - the root primary for all of them. So now this is the true root for
00:13:38 - all the active VLANs that we have. If I do a show Spanning Tree
00:13:42 - again, now you can see VLAN 1, this bridge is the root,
00:13:46 - VLAN 10, this bridge is the root, VLAN 20, this bridge
00:13:50 - the root, and so on and so forth. So that is how you can set
00:13:54 - the switch to be the root for different VLANs and that
00:13:57 - is a nice enhancement because we can then manually set up different
00:14:01 - roots so that we use a load balancing characteristics. Some
00:14:05 - VLANs will use some links for their traffic; other VLANs
00:14:09 - will use other links. The only way you're going to be able to
00:14:12 - make this work efficiently is to have an accurate, up-to-date
00:14:17 - network diagram of your switch connections. So that you're going
00:14:21 - to be able to identify which switch ports get blocked which
00:14:24 - ones are active, and that's one of the skills that you'll have
00:14:27 - to master is based on the root bridge in the network, where
00:14:31 - the root is, which ports are actively being used. Now I say you have
00:14:35 - to master that not only for the real world kids are going to
00:14:38 - be setting this up, but be prepared when you get to certification
00:14:41 - exams to see network diagrams, to see where a root bridge is, to
00:14:45 - see the speeds of all the links, and to say, well these ports are going
00:14:48 - to be active, this one won't be active, so that will be blocked.
00:14:51 - I mean, seriously, the exams have been enhanced
00:14:56 - in a major way where you're going to be able to have a fold
00:14:59 - topology identifiying each one of those active links. It's pretty
00:15:03 - powerful. So per-VLAN Spanning Tree is an enhancement, but it's
00:15:08 - still the same old Spanning Tree engine just on multiple the
00:15:11 - So the people have spoken, the network industry has progressed
00:15:16 - and needs more speed, and you know, our signs are saying and
00:15:19 - Spanning Tree, 50 seconds, we can't have this, you know, and all
00:15:22 - the revolt. So the industry giants that create all the standards
00:15:27 - responded with a new standard, 802.1w, or the common
00:15:31 - name is Rapid Spanning Tree protocol. What it is is an enhanced
00:15:35 - version of Spanning Tree that is much more proactive than the
00:15:39 - previous. Now let me define proactive. In Spanning Tree protocol,
00:15:44 - when it finds all the active links and says, okay, these are
00:15:48 - our active links, let's block these other ones, it essentially
00:15:51 - forgets about them. Meaning they're blocked, they're not causing
00:15:55 - the loop, we're active, we're working along. So when the active link
00:15:59 - fails, Spanning Tree goes into a reactive state, meaning oh no,
00:16:04 - primarily link's lost, now what we do. You know, start looking at all
00:16:06 - these other ports to try and discover a backup path. Rapid Spanning
00:16:10 - tree, on the other hand, is proactive in the sense that once
00:16:13 - it finds its active ports, it sees the backup ports is just
00:16:18 - that -- backup.
00:16:20 - Meaning Rapid Spanning Tree remembers, if you've got this switch
00:16:24 - topology here of our three switches,
00:16:27 - and it says, these top two are going to be our primary ports, and
00:16:31 - this one will be blocked, Rapid Spanning Tree remembers, oh yeah,
00:16:36 - that can be a good backup port. I mean, it sounds so simple that
00:16:39 - that's all it really does. Spanning Tree forgets about
00:16:43 - it so if one of these dies it has to rediscover where the slowing
00:16:46 - goes. So with Rapid Spanning Tree, you get redefined port roles instead
00:16:50 - of saying it's just blocked, it will actually see it as an alternate
00:16:54 - port. The catch of Rapid Spanning Tree: it's kind of one of
00:16:58 - those things where people think oh, that's a no-brainer, let's
00:17:01 - use Rapid Spanning Tree. The catch with Rapid Spanning Tree is
00:17:05 - it's a fairly new standard. And when I say new I mean, you know,
00:17:09 - the standard -- now I'm just guesstimating here -- but the standard came
00:17:12 - out probably five years ago from now, which is 2007
00:17:18 - 2008 timeframe. So I'm talking at the end of the year, so I'm sure this
00:17:23 - recording will bleed over into the 2008. So you know, around 2003,
00:17:28 - but there are still 100 megabit per second switches is out there
00:17:31 - that work perfectly fine that
00:17:33 - you know, are five years old and people are still using them.
00:17:36 - like lies just because the standard comes out five six years
00:17:39 - ago doesn't mean everybody's like, implement that standard. So switches really
00:17:43 - only started, you know, everybody supporting Rapid Spanning Tree
00:17:46 - within the last three to four years. So in order to have Rapid
00:17:51 - Spanning Tree work, you have to have it running everywhere. Which
00:17:56 - means that there are some major network upgrades going on. If there's
00:18:00 - one switch in the network still running Spanning Tree, it will
00:18:04 - cause everybody to slow down. Because they created wrapping
00:18:07 - Spanning Tree to be backwards compatible. So if it
00:18:10 - sees an old Spanning Tree switch, it's going to say, well let's
00:18:13 - match those timers and slow ourselves down so that we can
00:18:17 - you know, work with this network. So in order to run Rapid
00:18:19 - Spanning Tree truly, it must be everywhere.
00:18:23 - I just a little bit ahead of myself and drawing a little switch
00:18:26 - network on the previous slide, but this is the official
00:18:29 - how RSTP does what it does. The main difference is just
00:18:34 - like Spanning Tree -- the old version -- it has reports it
00:18:37 - has designated ports. Meaning one per link it will have a designated
00:18:41 - port. But instead of saying it has blocked
00:18:44 - it sees those as alternate ports. That's the new port type.
00:18:48 - So instead of just saying, you're blocked, you're done, it sees this as an
00:18:52 - alternate should one of the root ports fail and the
00:18:56 - network and it can use that quickly as an alternate link. So
00:19:00 - what I want to do to wrap this video up is demonstrate the difference
00:19:04 - in speed when you compare Rapid Spanning Tree versus Spanning
00:19:08 - Tree, and I'll also show you how to turn it all on.
00:19:11 - So here's our network diagram that we've been using to test
00:19:15 - Spanning Tree. Again, what we've done is installed the redundant
00:19:18 - link connection right here on 0/24 on both
00:19:22 - of these switches. The switch one up top is our root bridge
00:19:26 - for all VLANs, and by the way CISCO does implement per-VLAN
00:19:29 - Rapid Spanning Tree. So they took their enhancement
00:19:32 - and moved into a per-VLAN level for Rapid Spanning Tree. So let's
00:19:36 - set it up, and again we still have these two hosts that can do our ping
00:19:40 - testing. We've got switch one that we're on right now,
00:19:44 - and to start Rapid Spanning Tree it's just one command. Piece
00:19:48 - of cake. Global config mode, you type in Spanning Tree mode,
00:19:53 - and then you choose which mode you want. By default, every
00:19:56 - CISCO switch runs per-VLAN Spanning Tree,
00:20:00 - but they also support multiple Spanning Tree, which is the old
00:20:03 - version, the really old version. Meaning you can run one instance
00:20:07 - of Spanning Tree per all VLANs before CISCO enhanced it. They still
00:20:12 - support that version because if you use per-VLAN Spanning
00:20:18 - Tree and have a ton of VLANs, it can actually cause
00:20:21 - a lot more processor cycles than CISCO originally intended, so
00:20:24 - you might just say, well I want to go back to multiple Spanning
00:20:27 - Tree mode where you have one Spanning Tree instance for multiple
00:20:30 - VLANs and that way you don't eat up all the resources
00:20:33 - on your switch. But what we're doing right now is converting
00:20:36 - to Rapid Spanning Tree and so you just type in Spanning Tree
00:20:39 - mode, Rapid - or Rapid PVST is the one CISCO supports. Now in
00:20:46 - order for that to work, you notice it kind of bounces the
00:20:49 - VLAN interface, in order for that to work we have to turn it on on all
00:20:52 - our switches because otherwise the timers won't increase,
00:20:56 - they'll detect Spanning Tree still running in the network. So
00:20:59 - we'll say Spanning Tree mode,
00:21:02 - Rapid on switch two. Jump over to switch three, Spanning Tree
00:21:07 - mode, Rapid. So now we're running Rapid per-VLAN Spanning
00:21:13 - Tree on all of our switches.
00:21:16 - It will take a second for them to converge. I'll just do a show Spanning
00:21:20 - Tree one more time and you can see Spanning Tree enabled, the
00:21:22 - protocol is Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol. This is still the
00:21:26 - root bridge. All the other spanning tree concepts still apply
00:21:29 - it's just now we have an -- let's go to switch three,
00:21:34 - show Spanning Tree, you see that we have this alternate port.
00:21:38 - that is labeled as that role and it's actually being used as an alternate
00:21:41 - port. It's still blocked, sure, because we still have to stop the
00:21:44 - loops, but we have now this active alternate port. And
00:21:49 - So this can still be combined with portfast to allow ports
00:21:53 - to transition quickly. So with that in place, let's
00:21:56 - do this. I'm going to open a command prompt on my computer
00:22:03 - and once again, if we go back to the network diagram, I am sitting
00:22:06 - on this computer right here, the 1.50, and I'm going to issue a
00:22:10 - continual ping over here to this PC, 1.20.
00:22:15 - And I'm going to introduce the same networks failure that
00:22:19 - we had previously. I'll ping 192.168.1.20
00:22:23 - keep that thing going. We can see that the
00:22:27 - ping is being successful. I'll scrunch this one up the job
00:22:31 - so we can watch what happens as the ping messages fail in the
00:22:34 - squish this one down right here. I'm going to jump over to
00:22:39 - switch number one, which since this is the root for all the
00:22:43 - VLANs, these are the active links that are going. This one down
00:22:46 - here is blocked. So I'm going to cause the same failure and shut down fast
00:22:50 - ethernet 0/12 and let's see how long it takes the
00:22:53 - PC to recover.
00:22:56 - So let me bring up that, bring up my continual ping going on, jump
00:23:00 - over to switch one. And i'll go into interface fast season
00:23:06 - 0/12 and you can see this thing is still
00:23:10 - going, every now and then you get an equals sign that you can watch.
00:23:13 - And I'll type in shutdown.
00:23:21 - So we have the interface went down, we have requests time out.
00:23:27 - It's supposed to be faster than that, hang on. I'm like, okay,
00:23:32 - we're failing, let me do a show Spanning Tree.
00:23:39 - We've got Rapid Spanning Tree is enabled, let me hop over to
00:23:43 - switch three. Wow, we just -- okay, wow. Yeah, that those
00:23:49 - rapid right there. That wasn't rapid at all. So let me do a show
00:23:53 - Spanning Tree on switch three. It looks like it's got the new
00:23:57 - root port that it's using. Everything's in a forwarding state.
00:24:05 - Sometimes if you cause the failure too quickly after converting
00:24:09 - to Rapid Spanning Tree, it hasn't actually detected the whole network
00:24:12 - running Rapid Spanning Tree. So let's try this again. And when they go
00:24:16 - back to switch one interface fast ethernet 0/12
00:24:19 - and I'll do a no shutdown.
00:24:22 - Power that active port back on. Now if you remember in the
00:24:25 - previous video, the no shutdown caused an immediate failure.
00:24:28 - And in the same sense here we're going to get an immediate
00:24:33 - failure. Okay, this isn't working like it's supposed to. Let's take a
00:24:37 - look. I'm going to jump over to switch three,
00:24:44 - do a show Spanning Tree. Let's take a look. It looks like we've got the
00:24:48 - designated ports that have gone into a learning state. You know what
00:24:52 - You know what I just realized?
00:24:56 - We have not turned on portfast. And when I say we, I mean I
00:24:59 - haven't. So the hosts that are pinging each other, as soon as the
00:25:02 - active link goes down, you can see that fast ethernet 0/4
00:25:06 - and eight, those are actual hosts that are plugged into that. And
00:25:10 - You notice what mode they were in -- they were in the learning mode.
00:25:13 - So I still need to turn on portfast -- I didn't even think of that that -- in order
00:25:17 - for this to take effect. So as of right now I have the original
00:25:22 - topology restored. We have a blocking port. Let me go under on
00:25:25 - switch two
00:25:29 - fast ethernet 0/8, and I'll type in Spanning Tree portfast. And
00:25:36 - there's the message, I showed you that at the beginning of this video,
00:25:38 - saying, you know, portfast is, you know, not to be enabled
00:25:43 - on non-switchboards, so I'll go under the fast ethernet 0/4, that's my router
00:25:48 - connection, also turn that on portfast, and it'll let me hop over to switch
00:25:52 - two. If I do a show IP interface
00:25:56 - I can see that I still have that PC plugged in the fast
00:25:58 - ethernet 0/8 right there. So global config, Spanning
00:26:03 - Tree portfast.
00:26:07 - Here's our little message. Let me just jump back here and mention what's happening. Whenever
00:26:11 - there is a failure in Spanning Tree and we cause this catastrophic
00:26:15 - failure, it will reset the ports. Now the ports that are portfast
00:26:18 - don't even notice that because they'll instantly go to a forwarding
00:26:22 - state. I forgot to turn on portfast on our host ports and also
00:26:26 - the router connection, that's our fast ethernet 0/4, that should be down
00:26:29 - here. So that the router, since the router is an active post
00:26:33 - it's going to go to an immediate forwarding state as well. Sell
00:26:36 - let's try that one more time.
00:26:39 - Bring up my prompt, bring up my ping message. Now I'm going to come
00:26:45 - back up to switch one, I'm going to do the same thing.
00:26:48 - I'm going to kill the fast ethernet 0/12 so the redundant
00:26:52 - link, 0/24, has to be used. Interface fast
00:26:56 - ethernet 0/12,
00:26:59 - Let me get my ping messages going back up. All right, they're pinging. And I do a
00:27:06 - shutdown.
00:27:10 - Do you see that? No, you didn't. The ping is still going.
00:27:18 - there was no failure that that's what I expected with rapids
00:27:21 - Spanning Tree. Now I'm going to jump back over to switch three and do a show
00:27:25 - Spanning Tree and you can see that the fast ethernet 0/24
00:27:28 - immediately transitioned over. That's the Spanning
00:27:32 - Tree effect I was looking for. Because as soon
00:27:35 - as it goes into the
00:27:39 - failure state it says, oh, that's my alternate poor let's
00:27:42 - immediately click over. Now when the original link gets restored,
00:27:46 - usually there's a moment to fail over let's see if it happens
00:27:49 - now. I'm going to do a no shutdown, bring that original link back online
00:27:53 - You can see the pings are still going up top.
00:28:01 - There we go, fast ethernet 0/12 has changed up. There we go, we have one ping
00:28:08 - dropped ping. That's the typical fail over time for Rapid Spanning
00:28:12 - Tree. The initial failure is immediate, meaning it's got the alternate port,
00:28:16 - click, it's shifted right back over. Then the consequent
00:28:21 - failures after that will
00:28:24 - you know, if we're switching back to the primary, will cause just
00:28:27 - a single instance, one or two seconds, of a network
00:28:30 - outage and that was enough to drop a ping packet. So
00:28:34 - overall, Rapid Spanning Tree is much faster than Spanning Tree
00:28:38 - See, we demonstrated both in one demonstration. Spanning
00:28:41 - Tree the original, you saw the 30 second timeout, and then Rapid
00:28:44 - Spanning Tree after I enabled portfast on our PC ports to
00:28:48 - take over the network and recover quickly.
00:28:52 - So Rapid Spanning Tree is designed to have almost an instantaneous
00:28:56 - failover in our network environments so that when network
00:28:59 - failures do happen, hopefully no one will even notice. So the
00:29:03 - enhancements to Spanning Tree while we walk through this, we
00:29:06 - saw the normal Spanning Tree port transition process which
00:29:09 - is the listening, learning, followed by the forwarding state, which
00:29:14 - causes a typical 30 seconds network outage or network up
00:29:18 - time while it's waiting to get to forwarding. That causes problems
00:29:22 - because PCs can boot faster than that and networks need
00:29:26 - to converge faster than that. So CISCO's initial enhancement
00:29:29 - to Spanning Tree was per-VLAN Spanning Tree, which allows
00:29:33 - you to run one instance per VLAN having different root
00:29:36 - bridges in the network, and setting up a type of manual load
00:29:40 - balancing. Finally, the ultimate enhancement to Spanning Tree is that
00:29:44 - 802.1w, or Rapid Spanning Tree, which you just saw, is
00:29:48 - a near instantaneous failover. I hope this has been informative for you and I'd like to
00:29:52 - thank you for viewing.

General Switching: Troubleshooting and Security Best Practices

Subnetting: Understanding VLSM

Routing Protocols: Distance Vector vs. Link State

Routing Protocols: OSPF Concepts

Routing Protocols: OSPF Configuration and Troubleshooting

Routing Protocols: EIGRP Concepts and Configuration

Access-Lists: The Rules of the ACL

Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs

Access-Lists: Configuring ACLs, Part 2

NAT: Understanding the Three Styles of NAT

NAT: Command-line NAT Configuration

WAN Connections: Concepts of VPN Technology

WAN Connections: Implementing PPP Authentication

WAN Connections: Understanding Frame Relay

WAN Connections: Configuring Frame Relay

IPv6: Understanding Basic Concepts and Addressing

IPv6: Configuring, Routing, and Interoperating

Certification: Some Last Words for Test Takers

Advanced TCP/IP: Working with Binary

Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 1

Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 2

Advanced TCP/IP: IP Subnetting, Part 3

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Jeremy Cioara

Jeremy Cioara

CBT Nuggets Trainer

Certifications:
Cisco CCNA, CCDA, CCNA Security, CCNA Voice, CCNP, CCSP, CCVP, CCDP, CCIE R&S; Amazon Web Services CSA; Microsoft MCP, MCSE, Novell CNA, CNE; CompTIA A+, Network+, iNet+

Area Of Expertise:
Cisco network administration and development. Author or coauthor of numerous books, including: CCNA Voice 640-461 Official Cert Guide; CCNA Voice Official Exam Certification Guide (640-460 IIUC); CCENT Exam Prep (Exam 640-822); CCNA Exam Cram (Exam 640-802) 3rd Edition; and CCNA Voice 640-461 Official Cert Guide.


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